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Inside Money and Monetary Neutrality

  • Peter R. Hartley
  • Carl E. Walsh

This paper examines the interaction between the financial and real sectors of the economy within the framework of a stochastic, rational expectation model that distinguishes between inside and outside money. The model also can be used to study the impact of variations in the degree of intermediation, measured by the elasticity of bank deposit supply. In contrast to earlier work which emphasized confusion between monetary and real shocks, we focus on the role played by confusion between inside and outside money and temporary and permanent base money disturbances. Financial sector disturbances, as well as temporary shocks tothe monetary base, are shown to have real effects even when private agents have complete information. When contemporaneous information on economic disturbances is incomplete, permanent shocks to the monetary base also have real effects. If our model is correct, it is invalid to reject equilibrium models of the business cycle on the grounds that anticipated money affects output. We argue that this result is robust in the sense that many "reasonable" models which incorporate inside money would yield a non-neutrality of portfolio and temporary base money supply shocks.

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File URL: http://www.nber.org/papers/w1890.pdf
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Paper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 1890.

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Date of creation: Apr 1986
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Publication status: published as Hartley, Peter R. and Carl E. Walsh, "Inside Money and Monetary Neutrality," Journal of Macroeconomics, Vol. 13, no. 3 (Summer 1991), pp. 395-416.
Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:1890
Note: ME
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  1. Boschen, John F. & Grossman, Herschel I., 1982. "Tests of equilibrium macroeconomics using contemporaneous monetary data," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 10(3), pages 309-333.
  2. Robert J. Barro, 1976. "Unanticipated Money Growth and Unemployment in the United States," Working Papers 234, Queen's University, Department of Economics.
  3. Lucas, Robert E, Jr, 1975. "An Equilibrium Model of the Business Cycle," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 83(6), pages 1113-44, December.
  4. Lucas, Robert E, Jr, 1973. "Some International Evidence on Output-Inflation Tradeoffs," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 63(3), pages 326-34, June.
  5. Alberro, Jose, 1981. "The Lucas hypothesis on the Phillips Curve : Further international evidence," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 7(2), pages 239-250.
  6. Roley, V Vance & Walsh, Carl E, 1985. "Monetary Policy Regimes, Expected Inflation, and the Response of Interest Rates to Money Announcements," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 100(5), pages 1011-39, Supp..
  7. Brunner, Karl & Cukierman, Alex & Meltzer, Allan H., 1980. "Stagflation, persistent unemployment and the permanence of economic shocks," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 6(4), pages 467-492, October.
  8. Lucas, Robert Jr., 1972. "Expectations and the neutrality of money," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 4(2), pages 103-124, April.
  9. James Tobin & William C. Brainard, 1962. "Financial Intermediaries and the Effectiveness of Monetary Controls," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 63R, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
  10. King, Robert G., 1981. "Monetary information and monetary neutrality," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 7(2), pages 195-206.
  11. Neil Wallace, 1983. "A legal restrictions theory of the demand for "money" and the role of monetary policy," Quarterly Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, issue Win.
  12. King, Robert G & Plosser, Charles I, 1984. "Money, Credit, and Prices in a Real Business Cycle," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 74(3), pages 363-80, June.
  13. Stanley Fischer, 1982. "A Framework for Monetary and Banking Analysis," NBER Working Papers 0936, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  14. Waldo, Douglas G., 1982. "Rational expectations and the role of countercyclical monetary policy," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 10(1), pages 101-109, July.
  15. Rush, Mark, 1985. "Unexpected monetary disturbances during the gold standard era," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(3), pages 309-321, May.
  16. V. Vance Roley & Carl E. Walsh, 1984. "Unanticipated Money and Interest Rates," NBER Working Papers 1278, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  17. Barro, Robert J. & Hercowitz, Zvi, 1980. "Money stock revisions and unanticipated money growth," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 6(2), pages 257-267, April.
  18. Kormendi, Roger C & Meguire, Philip G, 1984. "Cross-Regime Evidence of Macroeconomic Rationality," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 92(5), pages 875-908, October.
  19. Barro, Robert J., 1976. "Rational expectations and the role of monetary policy," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 2(1), pages 1-32, January.
  20. Walsh, Carl E, 1983. " Taxation of Interest Income, Deregulation and the Banking Industry," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 38(5), pages 1529-42, December.
  21. Romer, David, 1985. "Financial intermediation, reserve requirements, and inside money: A general equilibrium analysis," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(2), pages 175-194, September.
  22. Bryant, John & Wallace, Neil, 1984. "A Price Discrimination Analysis of Monetary Policy," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 51(2), pages 279-88, April.
  23. Fama, Eugene F., 1980. "Banking in the theory of finance," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 6(1), pages 39-57, January.
  24. King, Robert G. & Trehan, Bharat, 1984. "Money : Endogeneity and neutrality," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 385-393, November.
  25. Fischer, Stanley, 1983. "A Framework for Monetary and Banking Analysis," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 93(369a), pages 1-16, Supplemen.
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