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One Day in June, 1994: A Study of the Working of Reuters 2000-2 Electronic Foreign Exchange Trading System

  • Charles Goodhart
  • Takatoshi Ito
  • Richard Payne

The paper utilized foreign exchange data (bid, ask and transaction prices and quantities) collected from the screen of the electronic broking system (Reuter D2000-2) on June 16, 1993. The bid and ask quotes, which are `firm' in this data set, are compared with the Reuters FXFX page, which reports only indicative bid and ask prices. A caution is necessary due to its small samples (7 hours). The paper finds that although the bid-ask mean of indicative quotes is similar to that of `firm' quotes, the behavior of bid-ask spread and the frequency of quote entry are quite different in the two kinds of quotes. The bid-ask spreads in the broking system are much more time- variant and dependent on the frequency of trade, while the indicative bid-ask spreads tend to cluster at round numbers.

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File URL: http://www.nber.org/papers/t0179.pdf
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Paper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Technical Working Papers with number 0179.

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Date of creation: Apr 1995
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Publication status: published as Frankel, Jeffrey A., Giampaolo Galli and Alberto Giovannini (eds.) The Microstructure of Foreign Exchange Markets. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996.
Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberte:0179
Note: AP IFM
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  1. Michel M. Dacorogna, & Ulrich A. Muller & Olivier V. Pictet & Casper De Vries,, . "The Distribution of Extremal Foreign Exchange Rate Returns in Extremely Large Data Sets," Working Papers 1992-10-22, Olsen and Associates.
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  3. Bollerslev, Tim & Melvin, Michael, 1994. "Bid--ask spreads and volatility in the foreign exchange market : An empirical analysis," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(3-4), pages 355-372, May.
  4. Mark D. Flood, 1993. "Market structure and inefficiency in the foreign exchange market," Working Papers 1991-001, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
  5. Ananth Madhavan & Seymour Smidt, . "A Bayesian Model of Intraday Specialist Pricing," Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research Working Papers 2-91, Wharton School Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research.
  6. Ian Domowitz, 1992. "A Taxonomy of Automated Trade Execution Systems," IMF Working Papers 92/76, International Monetary Fund.
  7. Dacorogna, Michael M. & Muller, Ulrich A. & Nagler, Robert J. & Olsen, Richard B. & Pictet, Olivier V., 1993. "A geographical model for the daily and weekly seasonal volatility in the foreign exchange market," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 12(4), pages 413-438, August.
  8. Glassman, Debra, 1987. "Exchange rate risk and transactions costs: Evidence from bid-ask spreads," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 6(4), pages 479-490, December.
  9. Admati, Anat R & Pfleiderer, Paul, 1989. "Divide and Conquer: A Theory of Intraday and Day-of-the-Week Mean Effects," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 2(2), pages 189-223.
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  11. Domowitz, Ian, 1990. "The mechanics of automated trade execution systems," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 1(2), pages 167-194, June.
  12. Baillie, R.T. & Bollerslev, T., 1989. "Intra Day And Inter Market Volatility In Foreign Exchange Rates," Papers 8811, Michigan State - Econometrics and Economic Theory.
  13. Wood, Robert A & McInish, Thomas H & Ord, J Keith, 1985. " An Investigation of Transactions Data for NYSE Stocks," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 40(3), pages 723-39, July.
  14. Lyons, R.K., 1991. "Private Beliefs and Information Externalities in the Foreign Exchange Market," Papers 91-17, Columbia - Graduate School of Business.
  15. Roll, Richard, 1984. " A Simple Implicit Measure of the Effective Bid-Ask Spread in an Efficient Market," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 39(4), pages 1127-39, September.
  16. Bessembinder, Hendrik, 1994. "Bid-ask spreads in the interbank foreign exchange markets," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 35(3), pages 317-348, June.
  17. Anat R. Admati, Paul Pfleiderer, 1988. "A Theory of Intraday Patterns: Volume and Price Variability," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 1(1), pages 3-40.
  18. Lee, Charles M C & Ready, Mark J, 1991. " Inferring Trade Direction from Intraday Data," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 46(2), pages 733-46, June.
  19. Lyons, Richard K., 1995. "Tests of microstructural hypotheses in the foreign exchange market," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(2-3), pages 321-351.
  20. Ederington, Louis H & Lee, Jae Ha, 1993. " How Markets Process Information: News Releases and Volatility," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 48(4), pages 1161-91, September.
  21. Petersen, Mitchell A. & Fialkowski, David, 1994. "Posted versus effective spreads *1: Good prices or bad quotes?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 35(3), pages 269-292, June.
  22. Muller, Ulrich A. & Dacorogna, Michel M. & Olsen, Richard B. & Pictet, Olivier V. & Schwarz, Matthias & Morgenegg, Claude, 1990. "Statistical study of foreign exchange rates, empirical evidence of a price change scaling law, and intraday analysis," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 14(6), pages 1189-1208, December.
  23. Foster, F Douglas & Viswanathan, S, 1993. " Variations in Trading Volume, Return Volatility, and Trading Costs: Evidence on Recent Price Formation Models," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 48(1), pages 187-211, March.
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  25. repec:cup:cbooks:9780521396905 is not listed on IDEAS
  26. Cohen, Kalman J, et al, 1981. "Transaction Costs, Order Placement Strategy, and Existence of the Bid-Ask Spread," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 89(2), pages 287-305, April.
  27. Bollerslev, Tim & Domowitz, Ian, 1993. " Trading Patterns and Prices in the Interbank Foreign Exchange Market," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 48(4), pages 1421-43, September.
  28. French, Kenneth R. & Roll, Richard, 1986. "Stock return variances : The arrival of information and the reaction of traders," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(1), pages 5-26, September.
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