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One Day in June, 1994: A Study of the Working of Reuters 2000-2 Electronic Foreign Exchange Trading System

  • Charles Goodhart
  • Takatoshi Ito
  • Richard Payne

The paper utilized foreign exchange data (bid, ask and transaction prices and quantities) collected from the screen of the electronic broking system (Reuter D2000-2) on June 16, 1993. The bid and ask quotes, which are `firm' in this data set, are compared with the Reuters FXFX page, which reports only indicative bid and ask prices. A caution is necessary due to its small samples (7 hours). The paper finds that although the bid-ask mean of indicative quotes is similar to that of `firm' quotes, the behavior of bid-ask spread and the frequency of quote entry are quite different in the two kinds of quotes. The bid-ask spreads in the broking system are much more time- variant and dependent on the frequency of trade, while the indicative bid-ask spreads tend to cluster at round numbers.

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File URL: http://www.nber.org/papers/t0179.pdf
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Paper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Technical Working Papers with number 0179.

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Date of creation: Apr 1995
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Publication status: published as Frankel, Jeffrey A., Giampaolo Galli and Alberto Giovannini (eds.) The Microstructure of Foreign Exchange Markets. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996.
Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberte:0179
Note: AP IFM
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  1. Lease, Ronald C & Masulis, Ronald W & Page, John R, 1991. " An Investigation of Market Microstructure Impacts on Event Study Returns," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 46(4), pages 1523-36, September.
  2. Domowitz, Ian, 1993. "A taxonomy of automated trade execution systems," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 12(6), pages 607-631, December.
  3. Baillie, Richard T & Bollerslev, Tim, 1991. "Intra-day and Inter-market Volatility in Foreign Exchange Rates," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 58(3), pages 565-85, May.
  4. French, Kenneth R. & Roll, Richard, 1986. "Stock return variances : The arrival of information and the reaction of traders," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(1), pages 5-26, September.
  5. Lee, Charles M C & Ready, Mark J, 1991. " Inferring Trade Direction from Intraday Data," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 46(2), pages 733-46, June.
  6. Admati, Anat R & Pfleiderer, Paul, 1989. "Divide and Conquer: A Theory of Intraday and Day-of-the-Week Mean Effects," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 2(2), pages 189-223.
  7. Madhavan, Ananth & Smidt, Seymour, 1991. "A Bayesian model of intraday specialist pricing," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(1), pages 99-134, November.
  8. Bessembinder, Hendrik, 1994. "Bid-ask spreads in the interbank foreign exchange markets," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 35(3), pages 317-348, June.
  9. Roll, Richard, 1984. " A Simple Implicit Measure of the Effective Bid-Ask Spread in an Efficient Market," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 39(4), pages 1127-39, September.
  10. Ederington, Louis H & Lee, Jae Ha, 1993. " How Markets Process Information: News Releases and Volatility," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 48(4), pages 1161-91, September.
  11. Bollerslev, Tim & Melvin, Michael, 1994. "Bid--ask spreads and volatility in the foreign exchange market : An empirical analysis," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(3-4), pages 355-372, May.
  12. Richard K. Lyons, 1991. "Private Beliefs and Information Externalities in the Foreign Exchange Market," NBER Working Papers 3889, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  13. Flood, Mark D., 1994. "Market structure and inefficiency in the foreign exchange market," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 13(2), pages 131-158, April.
  14. Petersen, Mitchell A. & Fialkowski, David, 1994. "Posted versus effective spreads *1: Good prices or bad quotes?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 35(3), pages 269-292, June.
  15. Foster, F Douglas & Viswanathan, S, 1993. " Variations in Trading Volume, Return Volatility, and Trading Costs: Evidence on Recent Price Formation Models," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 48(1), pages 187-211, March.
  16. Domowitz, Ian, 1990. "The mechanics of automated trade execution systems," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 1(2), pages 167-194, June.
  17. Richard K. Lyons, 1993. "Tests of Microstructural Hypotheses in the Foreign Exchange Market," NBER Working Papers 4471, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  18. Muller, Ulrich A. & Dacorogna, Michel M. & Olsen, Richard B. & Pictet, Olivier V. & Schwarz, Matthias & Morgenegg, Claude, 1990. "Statistical study of foreign exchange rates, empirical evidence of a price change scaling law, and intraday analysis," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 14(6), pages 1189-1208, December.
  19. repec:cup:cbooks:9780521396905 is not listed on IDEAS
  20. Foster, F Douglas & Viswanathan, S, 1990. "A Theory of the Interday Variations in Volume, Variance, and Trading Costs in Securities Markets," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 3(4), pages 593-624.
  21. Dacorogna, Michael M. & Muller, Ulrich A. & Nagler, Robert J. & Olsen, Richard B. & Pictet, Olivier V., 1993. "A geographical model for the daily and weekly seasonal volatility in the foreign exchange market," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 12(4), pages 413-438, August.
  22. Glassman, Debra, 1987. "Exchange rate risk and transactions costs: Evidence from bid-ask spreads," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 6(4), pages 479-490, December.
  23. Michel M. Dacorogna, & Ulrich A. Muller & Olivier V. Pictet & Casper De Vries,, . "The Distribution of Extremal Foreign Exchange Rate Returns in Extremely Large Data Sets," Working Papers 1992-10-22, Olsen and Associates.
  24. Chris J. Leach & Ananth N. Madhavan, . "Price Experimentation and Security Market Structure," Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research Working Papers 20-92, Wharton School Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research.
  25. Bollerslev, Tim & Domowitz, Ian, 1993. " Trading Patterns and Prices in the Interbank Foreign Exchange Market," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 48(4), pages 1421-43, September.
  26. Anat R. Admati, Paul Pfleiderer, 1988. "A Theory of Intraday Patterns: Volume and Price Variability," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 1(1), pages 3-40.
  27. Cohen, Kalman J, et al, 1981. "Transaction Costs, Order Placement Strategy, and Existence of the Bid-Ask Spread," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 89(2), pages 287-305, April.
  28. Wood, Robert A & McInish, Thomas H & Ord, J Keith, 1985. " An Investigation of Transactions Data for NYSE Stocks," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 40(3), pages 723-39, July.
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