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Changes in Global Trade Patterns and Women's Employment in Manufacturing: an Analysis over the Period of Asianization and De-industrialization

  • Burca Kizilirmak


    (Department of Economics, Ankara University)

  • Emel Memis


    (Department of Economics, Ankara University)

  • Sirin Saracoglu


    (Department of Economics, METU)

  • Ebru Voyvoda


    (Department of Economics, METU)

The purpose of this study is to explore the employment effects of changes in manufacturing output resulting from changes in trade patterns over the period 1995-2006. For 30 countries (21 OECD and 9 non-OECD countries) we estimate the changes in embodied labor content due to trade using the factor-content analysis by breaking up the sources of these changes between the trade with the North, the South and China. We also decompose changes in employment into its components as changes within and across sectors. Our results present a net negative impact of trade on total employment in 30 countries over the period of analysis (despite employment gains in 17 countries). In all countries (except for Philippines and Republic of Korea) trade with China has a negative impact on total employment with a stronger negative effect on women’s employment. Employment losses in the South due to surge in imports from China are coupled with declining exports to the North as many countries in the North shift their imports to emerging economies in Asia. Decomposition results indicate that decline in the share of women’s employment is mainly due to shifts between sectors rather than within sector changes. Changes in women’s employment are still highly dependent on the movements in ‘traditional’ manufacturing sectors including food, textiles and wearing apparel.

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Paper provided by ERC - Economic Research Center, Middle East Technical University in its series ERC Working Papers with number 1401.

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Length: 41 pages
Date of creation: Jan 2014
Date of revision: Jan 2014
Handle: RePEc:met:wpaper:1401
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  1. Sanjaya Lall and Manuel Albaladejo (QEH), . "China’s Competitive Performance: A Threat To East Asian Manufactured Exports?," QEH Working Papers qehwps110, Queen Elizabeth House, University of Oxford.
  2. Black, Sandra E. & Brainerd, Elizabeth, 2002. "Importing Equality? The Impact of Globalization on Gender Discrimination," IZA Discussion Papers 556, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  3. Attanasio, Orazio & Goldberg, Pinelopi K. & Pavcnik, Nina, 2004. "Trade reforms and wage inequality in Colombia," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 74(2), pages 331-366, August.
  4. David Kucera & William Milberg, 2003. "Deindustrialization and changes in manufacturing trade: Factor content calculations for 1978–1995," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer, vol. 139(4), pages 601-624, December.
  5. David Roland Holst & John Weiss, 2004. "ASEAN and China: Export Rivals or Partners in Regional Growth?," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 27(8), pages 1255-1274, 08.
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  7. Goldberg, Pinelopi Koujianou & Pavcnik, Nina, 2003. "The Response of the Informal Sector to Trade Liberalization," CEPR Discussion Papers 3874, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  8. Cagatay, Nilufer & Ozler, Sule, 1995. "Feminization of the labor force: The effects of long-term development and structural adjustment," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 23(11), pages 1883-1894, November.
  9. Becker, Gary S., 1971. "The Economics of Discrimination," University of Chicago Press Economics Books, University of Chicago Press, edition 2, number 9780226041162.
  10. Shafaeddin, S. M., 2004. "Is China's accession to WTO threatening exports of developing countries?," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 15(2), pages 109-144, January.
  11. G¸nseli Berik & Yana van der Meulen Rodgers & Joseph E. Zveglich, 2004. "International Trade and Gender Wage Discrimination: Evidence from East Asia," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 8(2), pages 237-254, 05.
  12. Gunseli Berik, 2000. "Mature Export-Led Growth and Gender Wage Inequality in Taiwan," Feminist Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 6(3), pages 1-26.
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