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Do Multinational Enterprises Substitute Parent Jobs for Foreign Ones? Evidence from Firm Level Panel Data

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  • Jozef Konings
  • Alan Murphy

Abstract

This paper analyzes the demand for labor by home multinational enterprises (MNEs) in Europe. To this end we use a unique firm level panel data set of more than 1,200 European multinational enterprises and their subsidiaries that are located in either the European Union, Central and Eastern Europe or both. We investigate whether employment in the MNEs?subsidiaries are substitutes for home employment or in other words we investigate whether European MNEs can easily relocate employment between the parent and their daughter(s). Our main findings can be summarized as follows: (i) We find evidence for substitution effects between parent and foreign employment. A decline of 10% in MNE affiliate's wage costs is associated with a decline in parent employment of between 1.5% and 2% on average. (ii) This effect is mainly driven by firms that operate in the manufacturing sector. Moreover, the substitution effects mainly take place between EU parents and their affiliates located within the EU, rather than affiliates located in Central and Eastern Europe. (iii) We also report results for the non-manufacturing firms, where we find no substitution effects between parents and daughters in the service sectors, while we do find positive substitution effects between parents and their affiliates in Central and Eastern Europe for the firms operating in the wholesale trade and construction sectors. Our results suggest that on average the competition from low wage countries in Central and Eastern Europe did not contribute to a relocation of domestic jobs to Central and Eastern Europe. Substitution effects do take place, however, they mainly occur between parent firms and their affiliates that are located in the European Union.

Suggested Citation

  • Jozef Konings & Alan Murphy, 2001. "Do Multinational Enterprises Substitute Parent Jobs for Foreign Ones? Evidence from Firm Level Panel Data," LICOS Discussion Papers 10001, LICOS - Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance, KU Leuven.
  • Handle: RePEc:lic:licosd:10001
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    Cited by:

    1. Hakkala, Katariina & Heyman, Fredrik & Sjöholm, Fredrik, 2007. "Cross-Border Acquisitions, Multinationals and Wage Elasticities," Working Paper Series 709, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
    2. Jozef Konings & Alan Patrick Murphy, 2006. "Do Multinational Enterprises Relocate Employment to Low-Wage Regions? Evidence from European Multinationals," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 142(2), pages 267-286, July.
    3. Konings, Jozef, 2004. "The employment effects of foreign direct investment," EIB Papers 4/2004, European Investment Bank, Economics Department.
    4. Holger Görg & Michael Henry & Eric Strobl & Frank Walsh, 2009. "Multinational companies, backward linkages, and labour demand elasticities," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 42(1), pages 332-348, February.
    5. John W. Budd & Jozef Konings & Matthew J. Slaughter, "undated". "International Rent Sharing in Multinational Firms," Working Papers 0202, Human Resources and Labor Studies, University of Minnesota (Twin Cities Campus).
    6. Sascha O. Becker & Karolina Ekholm & Robert Jäckle & Marc-Andreas Muendler, 2005. "Location Choice and Employment Decisions: A Comparison of German and Swedish Multinationals," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 141(4), pages 693-731, December.
    7. Sotiris Blanas, 2012. "Intra-Firm Trade and Employment in US Manufacturing," FIW Working Paper series 077, FIW.
    8. John W. Budd & Jozef Konings & Matthew J. Slaughter, 2005. "Wages and International Rent Sharing in Multinational Firms," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 87(1), pages 73-84, February.
    9. Horst Siebert, 2006. "Locational Competition: A Neglected Paradigm in the International Division of Labour," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 29(2), pages 137-159, February.
    10. Castellani, Davide & Mariotti, Ilaria & Piscitello, Lucia, 2008. "The impact of outward investments on parent company's employment and skill composition: Evidence from the Italian case," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 19(1), pages 81-94, March.
    11. Giovanni Ferri & Giovanni Costa, 2007. "The determinants and employment effects of international outsourcing: the case of Italy," SERIES 0016, Dipartimento di Economia e Finanza - Università degli Studi di Bari "Aldo Moro", revised Apr 2007.
    12. Lars Calmfors & Giancarlo Corsetti & John Kay & Seppo Honkapohja & Willi Leibfritz & Gilles Saint-Paul & Hans-Werner Sinn & Xavier Vives, 2005. "Chapter 2: Outsourcing," EEAG Report on the European Economy, CESifo, vol. 0, pages 39-50, March.
    13. Lars Calmfors & Giancarlo Corsetti & Michael P. Devereux & Gilles Saint-Paul & Hans-Werner Sinn & Jan-Egbert Sturm & Xavier Vives, 2008. "Chapter 3: The effect of globalisation on Western European jobs: curse or blessing?," EEAG Report on the European Economy, CESifo, vol. 0, pages 71-104, February.
    14. Damijan, Jože & Kostevc, Crt & Rojec, Matija, 2014. "Outward FDI and company performance in CEECs," Working Paper Series in Economics and Institutions of Innovation 381, Royal Institute of Technology, CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Relocation; Multinational Enterprises; Labor Demand;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • F23 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - Multinational Firms; International Business
    • J23 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Demand

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