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Time and Income Poverty - An Interdependent Multidimensional Poverty Approach with German Time Use Diary Data

Author

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  • Joachim Merz
  • Tim Rathjen

    () (LEUPHANA University Lüneburg,Department of Economic, Behaviour and Law Sciences, Research Institute on Professions (Forschungsinstitut Freie Berufe (FFB)))

Abstract

Income as the traditional one dimensional measure in well-being and poverty analyses is extended in recent studies by a multidimensional poverty concept. Though this is certainly a progress, however, two important aspects are missing: time as an important dimension and the interdependence of the often only separately counted multiple poverty dimensions. Our paper will contribute to both aspects: First, we consider time – and income – both as striking and restricting resources of everyday activities and hence account for time and income as important multiple poverty dimensions. Second, the interdependence of the poverty dimensions will be evaluated by the German population to allow an advanced approach to understand possible substitution effects and the respective trade offs between the dimensions. Referring to the time dimension, we follow Sen’s capability approach with its freedom of the living conditions’ choice and social exclusion and argue, that restricted time might exclude from social participation. In particular, restricted genuine, personal leisure time (not entire leisure time) in particular is associated with a restricted social participation. The crucial question then is how to measure the substitution between income and such genuine leisure time. In our analysis we consider the country population’s valuation with data from the German Socio-Economic Panel and estimate the substitution by a CES-utility function of general utility/satisfaction. Given this quantification we disentangle time, income and interdependent multidimensional poverty regimes characterising the working poor. In addition, we quantify further socio-economic influences for each interdependent multidimensional poverty regime by a multinomial logit based on time use diary data of the German Time Use Study 2001/02. One striking result for Germany: the substitution between time and income is significant and we find an important fraction of time poor who are unable to substitute their time deficit by income. These poor people are ignored within the poverty and well-being as well as the time crunch and time famine discussion so far.

Suggested Citation

  • Joachim Merz & Tim Rathjen, 2009. "Time and Income Poverty - An Interdependent Multidimensional Poverty Approach with German Time Use Diary Data," FFB-Discussionpaper 79, Research Institute on Professions (Forschungsinstitut Freie Berufe (FFB)), LEUPHANA University Lüneburg.
  • Handle: RePEc:leu:wpaper:79
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Merz, Joachim, 1996. "Schattenwirtschaft und Arbeitsplatzschaffung," MPRA Paper 7224, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Joachim Merz & Bettina Scherg, 2013. "Polarization of time and income – A multidimensional approach with well-being gap and minimum 2DGAP: German evidence," Working Papers 297, ECINEQ, Society for the Study of Economic Inequality.
    3. David Bell & Steffen Otterbach & Alfonso Sousa-Poza, 2012. "Work Hours Constraints and Health," Annals of Economics and Statistics, GENES, pages 35-54.
    4. Joachim Merz & Tim Rathjen, 2011. "Intensity of Time and Income Interdependent Multidimensional Poverty: Well-Being and Minimum 2DGAP – German Evidence," FFB-Discussionpaper 92, Research Institute on Professions (Forschungsinstitut Freie Berufe (FFB)), LEUPHANA University Lüneburg.
    5. Busch, Christopher & Peichl, Andreas, 2010. "The Development of Multidimensional Poverty in Germany 1985-2007," IZA Discussion Papers 4922, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    6. Nicolai Suppa, 2015. "Towards a Multidimensional Poverty Index for Germany," SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research 736, DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP).
    7. Joachim Merz & Tim Rathjen, 2011. "Intensity of Time and Income Interdependent Multidimensional Poverty: Well-Being and Minimum 2DGAP – German Evidence," FFB-Discussionpaper 92, Research Institute on Professions (Forschungsinstitut Freie Berufe (FFB)), LEUPHANA University Lüneburg.
    8. Venn, Danielle & Strazdins, Lyndall, 2017. "Your money or your time? How both types of scarcity matter to physical activity and healthy eating," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, pages 98-106.
    9. Tim Rathjen, 2011. "Do Time Poor Individuals Pay More?," FFB-Discussionpaper 91, Research Institute on Professions (Forschungsinstitut Freie Berufe (FFB)), LEUPHANA University Lüneburg.
    10. Joachim Merz & Tim Rathjen, 2014. "Multidimensional time and income poverty: well-being gap and minimum 2DGAP poverty intensity – German evidence," The Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer;Society for the Study of Economic Inequality, pages 555-580.
    11. Joachim Merz & Henning Stolze, 2010. "Kumulation von Querschnitten - Evaluierung alternativer Konzepte für die kumulierten laufenden Wirtschaftsrechnungen 1999 bis 2003 im Vergleich zur Einkommens- und Verbrauchsstichprobe 2003," FFB-Discussionpaper 85, Research Institute on Professions (Forschungsinstitut Freie Berufe (FFB)), LEUPHANA University Lüneburg.
    12. Joachim Merz & Tim Rathjen, 2016. "Entrepreneurs and Freelancers: Are They Time and Income Multidimensional Poor? - The German Case," FFB-Discussionpaper 102, Research Institute on Professions (Forschungsinstitut Freie Berufe (FFB)), LEUPHANA University Lüneburg.
    13. Merz, Joachim & Quiel, Thorsten & Venkatarama, Kshama, 1998. "Wer bezahlt die Steuern? Steuerbelastung und Einkommenssituation von Freien und anderen Berufen," MPRA Paper 9173, University Library of Munich, Germany.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Interdependent multidimensional time and income poverty; time and income substitution; extended economic well-being; satisfaction; CES utility function estimation; working poor; German Socio-Economic Panel; German Time Use Surveys 2001/02;

    JEL classification:

    • D31 - Microeconomics - - Distribution - - - Personal Income and Wealth Distribution
    • D13 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior - - - Household Production and Intrahouse Allocation
    • J22 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Time Allocation and Labor Supply

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