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Zeit- und Einkommensarmut von Freien Berufen und Unternehmern

  • Joachim Merz
  • Tim Rathjen

    ()

    (LEUPHANA University Lüneburg,Department of Economic, Behaviour and Law Sciences, Research Institute on Professions (Forschungsinstitut Freie Berufe (FFB)))

It is common sense that (liberal) professions and entrepreneurs (tradesmen) as self-employed are rich by money and, because of their independence and time sovereignty, are rich by time, too. This study tries to shed empirically based light on the issue and the well-being situation of the professions and entrepreneurs in particular by asking not only about income poverty but also about time poverty within the framework of a new interdependent multidimensional poverty approach. Database is the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) for the evaluation of the substitution/trade-off of genuine leisure time and income as well as the German Time Use Surveys (GTUS) 1991/92 and 2001/02 for the actual poverty analyses. Altogether, compared to employees a particular concernment of multidimensional time and income poverty of professions and notably entrepreneurs is identified; a result which is in contrast to common valuation. A remarkable percentage of the not income poor but time poor employees in general, and professions as well as entrepreneurs in particular, is not able to compensate their time deficit by income. These individuals are neglected in the poverty and well-being discussion so far, in the discussion about the “woorking poor” as well as in the discussion concerning time stress and time presure in generall, and for professions as well as entrepreneurs in particular.

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Paper provided by Research Institute on Professions (Forschungsinstitut Freie Berufe (FFB)), LEUPHANA University Lüneburg in its series FFB-Discussionpaper with number 89.

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Length: 29 pages
Date of creation: Mar 2011
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:leu:wpaper:89
Contact details of provider: Web page: http://ffb.uni-lueneburg.de/repec/leu/
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  1. Joachim Merz & Tim Rathjen, 2009. "Time and Income Poverty - An Interdependent Multidimensional Poverty Approach with German Time Use Diary Data," FFB-Discussionpaper 79, Research Institute on Professions (Forschungsinstitut Freie Berufe (FFB)), LEUPHANA University Lüneburg.
  2. Ari Hyytinen & Olli-Pekka Ruuskanen, 2007. "Time Use of the Self-Employed," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 60(1), pages 105-122, 02.
  3. Bruno S. Frey, . "Happiness Research: State and Prospects," IEW - Working Papers 192, Institute for Empirical Research in Economics - University of Zurich.
  4. Joachim Merz, 2002. "Zur Kumulation von Haushaltsstichproben," FFB-Discussionpaper 37, Research Institute on Professions (Forschungsinstitut Freie Berufe (FFB)), LEUPHANA University Lüneburg.
  5. Thursby, Jerry G & Lovell, C A Knox, 1978. "An Investigation of the Kmenta Approximation to the CES Function," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 19(2), pages 363-77, June.
  6. Bruno S. Frey & Alois Stutzer, 2001. "What Can Economists Learn from Happiness Research?," CESifo Working Paper Series 503, CESifo Group Munich.
  7. Maria Ana Lugo, 2008. "Multidimensional Poverty Measures from an Information Theory Perspective," OPHI Working Papers ophiwp011, Queen Elizabeth House, University of Oxford.
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  9. Bourguignon, F. & Chakravarty, S.R., 1998. "The Measurement of Multidimensional Poverty," DELTA Working Papers 98-12, DELTA (Ecole normale supérieure).
  10. Gert G. Wagner & Joachim R. Frick & Jürgen Schupp, 2007. "The German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP): Scope, Evolution and Enhancements," SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research 1, DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP).
  11. Dominik Hanglberger, 2010. "Arbeitszufriedenheit und flexible Arbeitszeiten – Empirische Analyse mit Daten des Sozio-oekonomischen Panels," FFB-Discussionpaper 80, Research Institute on Professions (Forschungsinstitut Freie Berufe (FFB)), LEUPHANA University Lüneburg.
  12. A. Atkinson, 2003. "Multidimensional Deprivation: Contrasting Social Welfare and Counting Approaches," Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer, vol. 1(1), pages 51-65, April.
  13. Guy Mayraz & Jürgen Schupp & Gert G. Wagner, 2009. "Life Satisfaction and Relative Income: Perceptions and Evidence," CEP Discussion Papers dp0938, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
  14. Kai-yuen Tsui, 2002. "Multidimensional poverty indices," Social Choice and Welfare, Springer, vol. 19(1), pages 69-93.
  15. Joachim Merz & Markus Zwick, 2005. "Hohe Einkommen: Eine Verteilungsanalyse für Freie Berufe, Unternehmer und abhängig Beschäftigte mit Mikrodaten der Einkommensteuerstatistik," Schmollers Jahrbuch : Journal of Applied Social Science Studies / Zeitschrift für Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaften, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin, vol. 125(2), pages 269-298.
  16. Österbacka, Eva & Merz, Joachim & Zick, Cathleen D., 2010. "Human Capital Investments in Children: A Comparative Analysis of the Role of Parent-Child Shared Time in Selected Countries," IZA Discussion Papers 5084, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  17. Herrmann, Harald, 2007. "Freie Berufe- Europäische Entwicklungen
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  18. Andrew Harvey & Arun Mukhopadhyay, 2007. "When Twenty-Four Hours is not Enough: Time Poverty of Working Parents," Social Indicators Research, Springer, vol. 82(1), pages 57-77, May.
  19. Joseph Deutsch & Jacques Silber, 2005. "Measuring Multidimensional Poverty: An Empirical Comparison Of Various Approaches," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 51(1), pages 145-174, 03.
  20. Daniel Kahneman & Alan B. Krueger, 2006. "Developments in the Measurement of Subjective Well-Being," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 20(1), pages 3-24, Winter.
  21. Jens Bonke & Frederik Gerstoft, 2007. "Stress, time use and gender," electronic International Journal of Time Use Research, Research Institute on Professions (Forschungsinstitut Freie Berufe (FFB)) and The International Association for Time Use Research (IATUR), vol. 4(1), pages 47-68, September.
  22. Herrmann, Harald, 2007. "Freie Berufe – Europäische Entwicklungen," MPRA Paper 9036, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  23. Michael Bittman, 1999. "Social Participation and Family Welfare: The Money and Time Costs of Leisure," Discussion Papers 0095, University of New South Wales, Social Policy Research Centre.
  24. Joachim Merz & Tim Rathjen, 2010. "Sind Selbständige zeit- und einkommensarm? Eine Mikroanalyse der Dynamik interdependenter multidimensionaler Armut mit dem Sozio-ökonomischen Panel und den deutschen Zeitbudgeterhebungen," FFB-Discussionpaper 82, Research Institute on Professions (Forschungsinstitut Freie Berufe (FFB)), LEUPHANA University Lüneburg.
  25. Joachim Merz & Paul Böhm & Derik Burgert, 2009. "Timing and fragmentation of daily working hours arrangements and income inequality – An earnings treatment effects approach with German time use diary data," electronic International Journal of Time Use Research, Research Institute on Professions (Forschungsinstitut Freie Berufe (FFB)) and The International Association for Time Use Research (IATUR), vol. 6(2), pages 200-239, September.
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