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Who pays the taxes?

  • C. A. de Kam
  • J. de Haan
  • C. Giles
  • A. Manresa
  • E. Berenguer
  • S. Calonge
  • J. Merz


    (LEUPHANA University Lüneburg,Department of Economic, Behaviour and Law Sciences, Research Institute on Professions (Forschungsinstitut Freie Berufe (FFB)))

The European Union is legally entitled to the revenue from (1) agricultural and sugar levies, (2) customs duties, (3) a 1 percent rate on each Member States' value added tax base, and (4) a resource on the basis of GNP. Currently, the Union is actively involved in the search for a fifth own revenue source. Therefore, the European Commission (DG XIX) has invited the authors to trace 'who pays the taxes'. As requested, our report gives a general account of methods to investigate impacts of taxation. More specifically, we have estimated the incidence of national tax systems (Germany, the Netherlands, Spain and the United Kingdom), and the incidence of present own resources and prospective new (tax) resources of the European Union. Up till now, such information was not (readily) available.

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File Function: First version, 1996
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Paper provided by Research Institute on Professions (Forschungsinstitut Freie Berufe (FFB)), LEUPHANA University Lüneburg in its series FFB-Discussionpaper with number 18.

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Length: 89 pages
Date of creation: Jul 1996
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:leu:wpaper:18
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  1. repec:sae:niesru:v:137:y::i:1:p:59-74 is not listed on IDEAS
  2. repec:sae:niesru:v:133:y::i:1:p:91-115 is not listed on IDEAS
  3. Knoester, Anthonie & van der Windt, Nico, 1987. "Real Wages and Taxation in Ten OECD Countries," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 49(1), pages 151-69, February.
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  5. K.B. Church & P.R. Mitchell & P.N. Smith & K.F. Wallis, 1995. "Comparative Properties of Models of the UK Economy," National Institute Economic Review, National Institute of Economic and Social Research, vol. 153(1), pages 59-72, August.
  6. Dolado, J J & Malo de Molina, J L & Zabalza, A, 1986. "Spanish Industrial Unemployment: Some Explanatory Factors," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 53(210(S)), pages S313-34, Supplemen.
  7. Kehoe, Timothy J. & Noyola, Pedro Javier & Manresa, Antonio & Polo, Clemente & Sancho, Ferran, 1988. "A general equilibrium analysis of the 1986 tax reform in Spain," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 32(2-3), pages 334-342, March.
  8. Merz, Joachim, 1994. "Microsimulation - A Survey of Methods and Applications for Analyzing Economic and Social Policy," MPRA Paper 7232, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  9. C. A. de Kam & J. de Haan & C. Giles & A. Manresa & E. Berenguer & J. Merz & K. Venkatarama, 1996. "The distribution of effective tax burdens in four EU countries," FFB-Discussionpaper 21, Research Institute on Professions (Forschungsinstitut Freie Berufe (FFB)), LEUPHANA University Lüneburg.
  10. Wallis, K.F., 1992. "On Macroeconomic Policy and Macroeconometric Models," CEPR Discussion Papers 264, Centre for Economic Policy Research, Research School of Economics, Australian National University.
  11. Layard, Richard & Nickell, Stephen & Jackman, Richard, 1991. "Unemployment: Macroeconomic Performance and the Labour Market," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198284345.
  12. Nickell, S. & Wadhwani, S., 1989. "Insider Forces And Wage Determination," Papers 334, London School of Economics - Centre for Labour Economics.
  13. Joachim Merz, 1995. "MICSIM - Concept, Developments and Applications of a PC-Microsimulation Model for Research and Teaching," FFB-Discussionpaper 14, Research Institute on Professions (Forschungsinstitut Freie Berufe (FFB)), LEUPHANA University Lüneburg.
  14. Burkhauser, Richard V & Smeeding, Timothy M & Merz, Joachim, 1996. "Relative Inequality and Poverty in Germany and the United States Using Alternative Equivalence Scales," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 42(4), pages 381-400, December.
  15. Merz, Joachim, 1991. "Microsimulation -- A survey of principles, developments and applications," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 7(1), pages 77-104, May.
  16. Bentolila, Samuel & Dolado, Juan J., 1993. "Who Are the Insiders? Wage Setting in Spanish Manufacturing Firms," CEPR Discussion Papers 754, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  17. Barthold, Thomas A., 1993. "How Should We Measure Distribution?," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association, vol. 46(3), pages 291-99, September.
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