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Services supérieurs et recomposition urbaine

Author

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  • BOITEUX, Céline

    (LATEC - CNRS - Université de Bourgogne)

  • HURIOT, Jean-Marie

    (LATEC - CNRS - Université de Bourgogne)

Abstract

Since the 1980s, we have observed an increasing tendency of specialized services like producer services to leave their " natural habitat " in the center of large metropolitan areas in order to relocate in suburban zones. This phenomenon is particularly apparent in North American cities and seems to be occurring around certain French cities too. This paper investigates the forms taken by this new trend, and the reasons behind it. Taking economic geography and economics of cities as our theoretical basis, we first describe the main forces determining the agglomeration of producer services and their preference for certain big cities. Agglomeration factors are to be looked for not only in production factors, and then mainly in information and skilled labor, but also in the specific demand characteristics of producer services. Second, we attempt to explain the recent movement of deconcentration of producer services. This process is the result of classical dispersion forces such as congestion or competition for land, but also of more specific factors associated with new communication technologies, workers' lifestyles and the product cycle. The differences between North American and French observations can be ascribed to differences in the nature of the agglomeration and dispersion forces at work. / Depuis le début des années 1980, on constate une tendance croissante des services spécialisés à quitter leur " habitat naturel " dans le centre des grandes zones métropolitaines pour se relocaliser dans des zones suburbaines. Ce phénomène apparaît clairement aux Etats-Unis dans le rapide développement des edge cities, mais il est plus discret en France. L'objectif de ce papier est d'analyser les raisons et les formes de ce phénomène. D'abord, sur les bases théoriques de l'économie géographique et de l'économie des villes, nous souhaitons identifier les principales forces d'agglomération qui poussent les services aux entreprises à se localiser dans les grandes villes. Elles sont liées d'une part à des contraintes de production relatives aux échanges d'informations et aux besoins en main d'oeuvre qualifiée, et d'autre part aux exigences de la demande. Ensuite, nous essayons d'expliquer le récent mouvement de déconcentration des services supérieurs aux entreprises. Ce processus résulte de forces classiques de dispersion comme la congestion et la concurrence pour l'occupation du sol, mais aussi de forces spécifiques liées au développement des nouvelles technologies de la communication, au mode de vie des travailleurs et au cycle du produit. Les différences entre les observations nord-américaines et françaises peuvent être attribuées à des différences de nature des forces d'agglomération et de dispersion à l'oeuvre.

Suggested Citation

  • BOITEUX, Céline & HURIOT, Jean-Marie, 2000. "Services supérieurs et recomposition urbaine," LATEC - Document de travail - Economie (1991-2003) 2000-02, LATEC, Laboratoire d'Analyse et des Techniques EConomiques, CNRS UMR 5118, Université de Bourgogne.
  • Handle: RePEc:lat:lateco:2000-02
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