The demand for foreign languages in Italian manufacturing
Relying on a rich firm-level dataset, we investigate the factors underlying the demand for foreign languages (FL) by Italian manufacturing firms. As main determinants, we focus on innovation and internationalization activities, these latter ranging from export to FDI. In the empirical analysis, we first estimate the probability of demanding for the knowledge of at least one FL through a set of univariate probit models, in which we also control for other characteristics required by firms, like the type of job, the level of education, the type of experience and the knowledge of informatics. Then, we make the demand for FL interact with the demand for these characteristics by estimating a set of bivariate probit models from which we extract the joint and conditional probabilities. Our estimates show that the probability to demand for FL increases with firm size, human capital intensity, engagement in R&D and in exporting goods, whereas the other internationalization activities are not significant when considered individually. Instead, we find a strong and positive effect on FL demand of increasing commitment to internationalization. Moreover, R&D and internationalization acts like observable substitutes on FL demand. When we further make FL demand interact with other required attributes, we find that the impact of increasing exposure to internationalization is higher when the firm also demands for professional occupations with a university degree, for specific experience and for the simultaneous knowledge of informatics. We conclude that FL are a strategic asset for firms and, from a labor demand perspective, are complementary to high levels of human capital.
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Melitz, Jacques, 2002.
"Language and Foreign Trade,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
3590, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- B. B. Schlegelmilch & J. N. Crook, 1988. "Firm‐level determinants of export intensity," Managerial and Decision Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 9(4), pages 291-300, December.
- Davide Castellani, 2002. "Export behavior and productivity growth: Evidence from Italian manufacturing firms," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer, vol. 138(4), pages 605-628, December.
- Elhanan Helpman & Marc J. Melitz & Stephen R. Yeaple, 2004.
"Export Versus FDI with Heterogeneous Firms,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 94(1), pages 300-316, March.
- Bruce Kogut & Harbir Singh, 1988. "The Effect of National Culture on the Choice of Entry Mode," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 19(3), pages 411-432, September.
- RubÃ©n Fern�ndez-Ortiz & Guadalupe Fuentes Lombardo, 2009. "Influence of the capacities of top management on the internationalization of SMEs," Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 21(2), pages 131-154, March.
- Jan Johanson & Jan-Erik Vahlne, 2009. "The Uppsala internationalization process model revisited: From liability of foreignness to liability of outsidership," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 40(9), pages 1411-1431, December.
- Gabriel R G Benito & Geir Gripsrud, 1992. "The Expansion of Foreign Direct Investments: Discrete Rational Location Choices or a Cultural Learning Process?," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 23(3), pages 461-476, September.
- Hutchinson, William K, 2002. "Does Ease of Communication Increase Trade? Commonality of Language and Bilateral Trade," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 49(5), pages 544-56, December.
- Nathalie Chusseau & Michel Dumont & Jo�l Hellier, 2008. "Explaining Rising Inequality: Skill-Biased Technical Change And North-South Trade ," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 22(3), pages 409-457, 07.
- Pinuccia Calia & Maria Rosaria Ferrante, 2008. "A Multivariate Framework To Explore Firms’ Internationalization Patterns. The Role Of Individual Heterogeneity," Statistica, Department of Statistics, University of Bologna, vol. 68(1), pages 31-55.
- Gilberto Antonelli & Roberto Antonietti & Giovanni Guidetti, 2010.
"Organizational Change, Skill Formation, Human Capital Measurement: Evidence From Italian Manufacturing Firms,"
Journal of Economic Surveys,
Wiley Blackwell, vol. 24(2), pages 206-247, 04.
- G. Antonelli & R. Antonietti & G. Guidetti, 2009. "Organizational Change, Skill Formation, Human Capital Measurement: Evidence From Italian Manufacturing Firms," Working Papers 661, Dipartimento Scienze Economiche, Universita' di Bologna.
- Haar, Jerry & Ortiz-Buonafina, Marta, 1995. "The internationalization process and marketing activities : The case of Brazilian export firms," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 175-181, February.
- repec:van:wpaper:0217 is not listed on IDEAS
- Jan Johanson & Jan-Erik Vahlne, 1977. "The Internationalization Process of the Firm—A Model of Knowledge Development and Increasing Foreign Market Commitments," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 8(1), pages 23-32, March.
- Francis Green & Alan Felstead & Duncan Gallie, 2003. "Computers and the changing skill-intensity of jobs," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 35(14), pages 1561-1576.
- Nicolas Sauter, 2012.
"Talking trade: language barriers in intra-Canadian commerce,"
Springer, vol. 42(1), pages 301-323, February.
- Nicolas Sauter, 2009. "Talking Trade: Language Barriers in Intra-Canadian Commerce," FIW Working Paper series 023, FIW.
- Alessandro Sterlacchini, 2001. "The determinants of export performance: A firm-level study of Italian manufacturing," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer, vol. 137(3), pages 450-472, September.
- Smith, Richard J & Blundell, Richard W, 1986. "An Exogeneity Test for a Simultaneous Equation Tobit Model with an Application to Labor Supply," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 54(3), pages 679-85, May.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:laa:wpaper:57. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ()
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.