Socioeconomic Environment and Mortality: A two-level Decomposition by Sex and Cause of Death
Gender inequalities in longevity/mortality are a major area of research since the 1970s. Despite substantial insights, the questions posed and the research strategies used are still in a state of flux. In the present paper we shed some light on the question, to which extent socioeconomic variables determine the gender gap in mortality for important causes of death. Thereby we specifically focus on behavior-related causes of death. We follow an ecological approach based on aggregated mortality data from Austria both at the community and the district level covering the time period 1969 - 2004. By using weighted regression analysis (panel fixed effects, pooled and cross section) we find that higher income levels reduce male mortality in most causes of death (including malignant neoplasms and diseases of the circulatory system), while this indicator appear to be insignificant for female mortality in these causes. This indicates that the decreasing effect of the higher socioeconomic status on mortality might be canceled out by a ”gender role equalization“ effect for women due to the adoption of unhealthy life styles (e.g. smoking). This finding is also confirmed by the fact that female mortality does not decrease with increasing income levels for smoking-related diseases, ischaemic heart disease and lung cancer. Thus, our results suggest that the decreasing female mortality advantage is mainly caused by increased smoking among women, while in the case of alcohol, violence and accidents the gender equalization seems to work in the opposite direction. In a nutshell, we conclude that the examination of the gender-specific mortality rates and mortality gaps without a disaggregation between different causes of death might mask important patterns of the epidemiological transition and the underlying drivers.
|Date of creation:||Sep 2010|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: NRN Labor Economics and the Welfare State, c/o Rudolf Winter-Ebmer, Altenbergerstr. 69, 4040 Linz|
Web page: http://www.labornrn.at/
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Martin Gaechter & Peter Schwazer & Engelbert Theurl, 2012.
"Stronger Sex but Earlier Death: A Multi-level Socioeconomic Analysis of Gender Differences in Mortality in Austria,"
DANUBE: Law and Economics Review,
European Association Comenius - EACO, issue 1, pages 1-23, March.
- Martin G?chter & Peter Schwazer & Engelbert Theurl, 2010. "Stronger sex but earlier death: A multi-level socioeconomic analysis of gender differences in mortality in Austria," Working Papers 2010-16, Faculty of Economics and Statistics, University of Innsbruck.
- Martin Gächter & Peter Schwazer & Engelbert Theurl, 2010. "Stronger sex but earlier death: A multi-level socioeconomic analysis of gender differences in mortality in Austria," NRN working papers 2010-06, The Austrian Center for Labor Economics and the Analysis of the Welfare State, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria.
- D. E. Sahn & D. C. Stifel, 2002. "Parental Preferences for Nutrition of Boys and Girls: Evidence from Africa," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 39(1), pages 21-45.
- Galor, Oded & Weil, David N, 1996. "The Gender Gap, Fertility, and Growth," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 86(3), pages 374-387, June.
- Oded Galor & David N. Weil, 1993. "The Gender Gap, Fertility, and Growth," NBER Working Papers 4550, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Galor, Oded & Weil, David, 1995. "The Gender Gap, Fertility and Growth," CEPR Discussion Papers 1157, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Oded Galor & David Weil, 1995. "The Gender Gap, Fertility and Growth," Working Papers 1993-12, Brown University, Department of Economics.
- David Cutler & Ellen Meara, 2001. "Changes in the Age Distribution of Mortality Over the 20th Century," NBER Working Papers 8556, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- David Cutler & Angus Deaton & Adriana Lleras-Muney, 2006. "The Determinants of Mortality," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 20(3), pages 97-120, Summer.
- David Cutler & Angus Deaton & Adriana Lleras-Muney, 2005. "The Determinants of Mortality," Working Papers 164, Princeton University, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Research Program in Development Studies..
- David Cutler & Angus Deaton & Adriana Lleras-Muney, 2005. "The Determinants of Mortality," Working Papers 235, Princeton University, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Center for Health and Wellbeing..
- David M. Cutler & Angus S. Deaton & Adriana Lleras-Muney, 2006. "The Determinants of Mortality," NBER Working Papers 11963, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Cutler, David & Lleras-Muney, Adriana & Deaton, Angus, 2006. "The Determinants of Mortality," Scholarly Articles 2640588, Harvard University Department of Economics.
- David M. Cutler & Angus S. Deaton & Adriana Lleras-Muney, 2006. "The Determinants of Mortality," Working Papers id:359, eSocialSciences.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:jku:nrnwps:2010_10. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (René Böheim)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.