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Work in the Shadow: Some Facts

  • Friedrich Schneider

In this paper the main focus lies on the shadow economy labor force in OECD, developing and transition countries. Besides informal employment in the rural and non-rural sector also other measures of informal employment like the share of women and men are shown. The most influential factors on the shadow economy labor force are tax policies and state regulation, which, if they rise, increase both. Furthermore the discussion of the recent micro studies underline that economic opportunities, the overall burden of the state (taxes and regulations), the general situation on the labor market, and unemployment are especially crucial for an understanding of the dynamics the shadow labour force.

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File URL: http://www.econ.jku.at/papers/2013/wp1318.pdf
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Paper provided by Department of Economics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria in its series Economics working papers with number 2013-18.

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Length: 19 pages
Date of creation: Aug 2013
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:jku:econwp:2013_18
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Web page: http://www.econ.jku.at/

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  1. Colin C. Williams, 2009. "Spatial variations in the hidden enterprise culture: Some lessons from England," Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 22(5), pages 403-423, April.
  2. Giles, David E A, 1999. "Measuring the Hidden Economy: Implications for Econometric Modelling," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 109(456), pages F370-80, June.
  3. Colin Williams, 2011. "A Critical Evaluation of Competing Conceptualizations of Informal Employment: Some Lessons from England," Review of Social Economy, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 69(2), pages 211-237.
  4. Christopher Bajada & Friedrich Schneider, 2009. "Unemployment and the Shadow Economy in the oecd," Revue économique, Presses de Sciences-Po, vol. 60(5), pages 1033-1067.
  5. Schneider, Friedrich, 2005. "Shadow economies around the world: what do we really know?," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 21(3), pages 598-642, September.
  6. David KUCERA & Leanne RONCOLATO, 2008. "Informal employment: Two contested policy issues," International Labour Review, International Labour Organization, vol. 147(4), pages 321-348, December.
  7. Dominik H. Enste & Friedrich Schneider, 2000. "Shadow Economies: Size, Causes, and Consequences," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 38(1), pages 77-114, March.
  8. Hazans, Mihails, 2011. "Informal Workers across Europe: Evidence from 30 Countries," IZA Discussion Papers 5871, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  9. Colin Williams & Jan Windebank, 2001. "Reconceptualising paid informal exchange: some lessons from English cities," Environment and Planning A, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 33(1), pages 121-140, January.
  10. Tanzi, Vito, 1999. "Uses and Abuses of Estimates of the Underground Economy," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 109(456), pages F338-47, June.
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