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Reconceptualising Paid Informal Exchange: Some Lessons from English Cities

Author

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  • Colin Williams

    (Department of Geography, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH, England)

  • Jan Windebank

    (Department of French Studies and Political Economy Research Centre, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TN, England)

Abstract

Most studies of paid informal exchange evaluate its varying magnitude across space and social groups. Little attention, however, has been paid to the variable nature of paid informal exchange. Instead, the unchallenged assumption is that such exchanges are universally conducted under work relations akin to formal employment for profit-motivated purposes. To evaluate critically this dominant conceptualisation of the character of paid informal exchange, empirical research is here reported from lower-income and higher-income neighbourhoods of two English cities. This identifies that although most paid informal exchange in affluent suburbs is conducted under market-like relations for economic gain, this is not the case in lower-income neighbourhoods. Here, such exchange is more undertaken for and by friends, neighbours, and relatives for an array of reasons associated with developing social capital and/or redistribution. We conclude by suggesting that a more socially, culturally, and geographically embedded appreciation of the nature of paid informal exchange is now required alongside a fuller exploration of its implications for policy.

Suggested Citation

  • Colin Williams & Jan Windebank, 2001. "Reconceptualising Paid Informal Exchange: Some Lessons from English Cities," Environment and Planning A, , vol. 33(1), pages 121-140, January.
  • Handle: RePEc:sae:envira:v:33:y:2001:i:1:p:121-140
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    Cited by:

    1. Colin C. Williams & Ioana A. Horodnic, 2015. "Explaining and tackling the shadow economy in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania: a tax morale approach," Baltic Journal of Economics, Baltic International Centre for Economic Policy Studies, vol. 15(2), pages 81-98.
    2. Friedrich Schneider, 2006. "Shadow Economies and Corruption all over the World: What do we really Know?," CESifo Working Paper Series 1806, CESifo Group Munich.
    3. Friedrich Schneider, 2014. "In the Shadow of the State – The Informal Economy and Informal Economy Labor Force," DANUBE: Law and Economics Review, European Association Comenius - EACO, issue 4, pages 227-248, December.
    4. Lars P. Feld & Friedrich Schneider, 2010. "Survey on the Shadow Economy and Undeclared Earnings in OECD Countries," German Economic Review, Verein für Socialpolitik, vol. 11, pages 109-149, May.
    5. Ioana Alexandra Horodnic & Colin C. Williams, 2016. "An evaluation of the shadow economy in Baltic states: a tax morale perspective," International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 28(2/3), pages 339-358.
    6. Friedrich Schneider, 2014. "Outside the State - the Shadow Economy and Shadow Economy Labor Force," CESifo Working Paper Series 4829, CESifo Group Munich.
    7. Schneider, Friedrich G. & Buehn, Andreas, 2009. "Shadow economies and corruption all over the world: revised estimates for 120 countries," Economics - The Open-Access, Open-Assessment E-Journal, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW), vol. 1, pages 1-53.
    8. Paul Longley & Carolina Tobón, 2003. "Spatial dependence and heterogeneity in patterns of urban deprivation," ERSA conference papers ersa03p132, European Regional Science Association.
    9. Schneider, Friedrich & Buehn, Andreas, 2012. "Shadow Economies in Highly Developed OECD Countries: What Are the Driving Forces?," IZA Discussion Papers 6891, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    10. Colin C. Williams & Friedrich Schneider, 2016. "Measuring the Global Shadow Economy," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 16551, December.
    11. Schneider Friedrich, 2010. "The Influence of Public Institutions on the Shadow Economy: An Empirical Investigation for OECD Countries," Review of Law & Economics, De Gruyter, vol. 6(3), pages 441-468, December.
    12. Schneider, Friedrich, 2012. "The Shadow Economy and Work in the Shadow: What Do We (Not) Know?," IZA Discussion Papers 6423, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    13. Friedrich Schneider, 2013. "Size and Progression of the Shadow Economies of Turkey and Other OECD Countries from 2003 to 2013; Some New Facts," Ekonomi-tek - International Economics Journal, Turkish Economic Association, vol. 2(2), pages 83-116, May.
    14. Friedrich Schneider, 2013. "Work in the Shadow: Some Facts," Economics working papers 2013-18, Department of Economics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria.
    15. Friedrich Schneider, 2009. "Size and Development of the Shadow Economy in Germany, Austria and Other oecd-Countries. Some Preliminary Findings," Revue économique, Presses de Sciences-Po, vol. 60(5), pages 1079-1116.

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