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What motivates female operators to enter the garment industry in Pakistan in the post-MFA period?

  • Makino, Momoe

Pakistan's knitwear exports had been struggling since the quota phase-out until 2009. A particular feature of Pakistan's garment industry is that hiring more male sewing operators at piece rates. Recently, a few surviving knitwear factories have adopted a strategy of shifting from male piece-rate operators to salaried female operators. In Pakistan, female participation in general workforce is very limited and hiring salaried female operators requires management effort and expertise. However, even in the factories with such management skills, household factors prevent females from working outside because Pakistani culture disrespects women working in factories. Our survey reveals that financial motives compel female household members to work outside their homes and that female operators contribute substantially to their households' finances.

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Paper provided by Institute of Developing Economies, Japan External Trade Organization(JETRO) in its series IDE Discussion Papers with number 374.

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Date of creation: Dec 2012
Date of revision:
Publication status: Published in IDE Discussion Paper. No. 374. 2012.12
Handle: RePEc:jet:dpaper:dpaper374
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  1. Baland, Jean-Marie & Dreze, Jean & Leruth, Luc, 1999. "Daily wages and piece rates in agrarian economies," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 59(2), pages 445-461, August.
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  7. Toseef Azid & Rana Ejaz Ali Khan & Adnan M.S. Alamasi, 2010. "Labor force participation of married women in Punjab (Pakistan)," International Journal of Social Economics, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 37(8), pages 592-612, July.
  8. Joshua D. Angrist & William N. Evans, 1996. "Children and Their Parents' Labor Supply: Evidence from Exogenous Variation in Family Size," NBER Working Papers 5778, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  9. Rashid Amjad, 2005. "Skills and Competitiveness: Can Pakistan Break Out of the Low-Level Skills Trap?," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 44(4), pages 387-409.
  10. Eatzaz Ahmad, 2007. "Labour Supply and Earning Functions of Educated Married Women: A Case Study of Northern Punjab," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 46(1), pages 45-62.
  11. Lazear, Edward P, 1986. "Salaries and Piece Rates," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 59(3), pages 405-31, July.
  12. Gladys Lopez-Acevedo & Raymond Robertson, 2012. "Sewing Success? Employment, Wages, and Poverty following the End of the Multi-Fibre Arrangement," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 13137.
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