IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/iza/izadps/dp8153.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Welfare Reform and Immigrant Fertility

Author

Listed:
  • Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina

    () (University of California, Merced)

  • Averett, Susan L.

    () (Lafayette College)

  • Bansak, Cynthia

    () (St. Lawrence University)

Abstract

Immigration policy continues to be at the forefront of policy discussions, and the use of welfare benefits by immigrants has been hotly debated. In 1996, Congress enacted welfare reform legislation (PRWORA), which denied the use of most means-tested assistance to non-citizens and lowered immigrant welfare dramatically. While Federal legislation imposed strict restrictions on eligibility for non-citizens, a number of states allowed previously eligible women to continue to receive benefits similar to those before 1996, whereas others imposed the new Federal cutbacks. Using data from the Current Population Survey (CPS) for the years 1994-2000, we examine whether immigrant women adjusted their childbearing in response to cutbacks in the generosity of welfare benefits at the state-level. Our findings suggest that non-citizen women, especially those of Hispanic origin, altered their fertility decisions in response to the legislation. In addition, they increased their labor force participation, possibly to obtain employer-sponsored benefits. Our results are robust to alternative definitions of our treatment and control groups and do not appear to be driven by pre-existing trends. Finally, we find no evidence that women who anticipated having children migrated to the more generous states. Overall, the results provide further evidence that immigrants respond to variation in state-level policies and provide insight into the potential impacts of comprehensive immigration reform, particularly the components related to the path to citizenship and access to public benefits.

Suggested Citation

  • Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina & Averett, Susan L. & Bansak, Cynthia, 2014. "Welfare Reform and Immigrant Fertility," IZA Discussion Papers 8153, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp8153
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://ftp.iza.org/dp8153.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Moffitt, Robert, 1992. "Incentive Effects of the U.S. Welfare System: A Review," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 30(1), pages 1-61, March.
    2. Robert Kaestner & Neeraj Kaushal, 2007. "Welfare Reform and Immigrants: Does the Five-year Ban Matter?," Research in Labor Economics, in: Barry R. Chiswick (ed.), Immigration, volume 27, pages 311-347, Emerald Publishing Ltd.
    3. Cawley John H & Schroeder Mathis & Simon Kosali Ilayperu, 2005. "Welfare Reform and the Health Insurance Coverage of Women and Children," Forum for Health Economics & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 8(1), pages 1-32, January.
    4. Tara Watson, 2014. "Inside the Refrigerator: Immigration Enforcement and Chilling Effects in Medicaid Participation," American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, American Economic Association, vol. 6(3), pages 313-338, August.
    5. Carrasquillo, O. & Ferry, D.H. & Edwards, J. & Glied, S., 2003. "Eligibility for Government Insurance if Immigrant Provisions of Welfare Reform Are Repealed," American Journal of Public Health, American Public Health Association, vol. 93(10), pages 1680-1682.
    6. Marianne Bitler & Hilary W. Hoynes, 2011. "Immigrants, Welfare Reform, and the U.S. Safety Net," NBER Working Papers 17667, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    7. Borjas, George J., 2003. "Welfare reform, labor supply, and health insurance in the immigrant population," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(6), pages 933-958, November.
    8. Plotnick, Robert D. & Winters, Richard F., 1985. "A Politico-Economic Theory of Income Redistribution," American Political Science Review, Cambridge University Press, vol. 79(2), pages 458-473, June.
    9. Lurie, Ithai Zvi, 2008. "Welfare reform and the decline in the health-insurance coverage of children of non-permanent residents," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(3), pages 786-793, May.
    10. Borjas, George J, 1999. "Immigration and Welfare Magnets," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 17(4), pages 607-637, October.
    11. Pervi Sevak & Lucie Schmidt, 2008. "Immigrant-Native Fertility and Mortality Differentials in the United States," Working Papers wp181, University of Michigan, Michigan Retirement Research Center.
    12. Thomas DeLeire & Judith A. Levine & Helen Levy, 2006. "Is Welfare Reform Responsible for Low-Skilled Women’s Declining Health Insurance Coverage in the 1990s?," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 41(3).
    13. Steven J. Haider & Robert F. Schoeni & Yuhua Bao & Caroline Danielson, 2004. "Immigrants, welfare reform, and the economy," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 23(4), pages 745-764.
    14. Daniel T. Griswold, 2012. "Immigration and the Welfare State," Cato Journal, Cato Journal, Cato Institute, vol. 32(1), pages 159-174, Winter.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina & Arenas-Arroy, Esther, 2017. "Immigrant Fertility in the Midst of Intensified Enforcement," GLO Discussion Paper Series 1, Global Labor Organization (GLO).

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. East, Chloe N., 2018. "Immigrants’ labor supply response to Food Stamp access," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 202-226.
    2. James P. Ziliak, 2015. "Temporary Assistance for Needy Families," NBER Chapters, in: Economics of Means-Tested Transfer Programs in the United States, Volume 1, pages 303-393, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    3. Tara Watson, 2014. "Inside the Refrigerator: Immigration Enforcement and Chilling Effects in Medicaid Participation," American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, American Economic Association, vol. 6(3), pages 313-338, August.
    4. Hope Corman & Dhaval M. Dave & Dhiman Das & Nancy E. Reichman, 2013. "Effects Of Welfare Reform On Illicit Drug Use Of Adult Women," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 51(1), pages 653-674, January.
    5. Marcus Dillender, 2017. "English Skills and the Health Insurance Coverage of Immigrants," American Journal of Health Economics, MIT Press, vol. 3(3), pages 312-345, Summer.
    6. Bronchetti, Erin Todd, 2014. "Public insurance expansions and the health of immigrant and native children," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 120(C), pages 205-219.
    7. Mahmud, Mir, 2016. "Immigrant Children’s Access to Public Health Insurance after CHIPRA-2009," MPRA Paper 80602, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    8. Xiaoning Huang & Neeraj Kaushal & Julia Shu-Huah Wang, 2020. "What Explains the Gap in Welfare Use among Immigrants and Natives?," NBER Working Papers 27811, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    9. Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina & Arenas-Arroyo, Esther & Sevilla, Almudena, 2018. "Immigration enforcement and economic resources of children with likely unauthorized parents," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 158(C), pages 63-78.
    10. Dave, Dhaval M. & Reichman, Nancy E. & Corman, Hope & Das, Dhiman, 2011. "Effects of welfare reform on vocational education and training," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 30(6), pages 1399-1415.
    11. Dhaval Dave & Hope Corman & Nancy Reichman, 2012. "Effects of Welfare Reform on Education Acquisition of Adult Women," Journal of Labor Research, Springer, vol. 33(2), pages 251-282, June.
    12. Zaiceva, A. & Zimmermann, K.F., 2016. "Migration and the Demographic Shift," Handbook of the Economics of Population Aging, in: Piggott, John & Woodland, Alan (ed.), Handbook of the Economics of Population Aging, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 0, pages 119-177, Elsevier.
    13. Thomas Buchmueller & John C. Ham & Lara D. Shore-Sheppard, 2015. "The Medicaid Program," NBER Chapters, in: Economics of Means-Tested Transfer Programs in the United States, Volume 1, pages 21-136, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    14. Pawel Kaczmarczyk, 2013. "Are immigrants a burden for the state budget? Review paper," EUI-RSCAS Working Papers p0356, European University Institute (EUI), Robert Schuman Centre of Advanced Studies (RSCAS).
    15. Tara Watson, 2013. "Enforcement and Immigrant Location Choice," NBER Working Papers 19626, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    16. Kerstin Gerst & Jeffrey Burr, 2011. "Welfare Use Among Older Hispanic Immigrants: The Effect of State and Federal Policy," Population Research and Policy Review, Springer;Southern Demographic Association (SDA), vol. 30(1), pages 129-150, February.
    17. Bae Jung, 2020. "Immigration Relief and Insurance Coverage: Evidence from Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 20(3), pages 1-37, July.
    18. Buchmueller Thomas C & Lo Sasso Anthony T & Wong Kathleen N, 2008. "How Did SCHIP Affect the Insurance Coverage of Immigrant Children?," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 8(2), pages 1-25, January.
    19. Marianne Bitler & Hilary W. Hoynes, 2011. "Immigrants, Welfare Reform, and the U.S. Safety Net," NBER Working Papers 17667, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    20. Kaczmarczyk, Pawel, 2015. "Burden or Relief? Fiscal Impacts of Recent Ukrainian Migration to Poland," IZA Discussion Papers 8779, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).

    More about this item

    Keywords

    immigration; fertility; welfare reform;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • J13 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth
    • I38 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty - - - Government Programs; Provision and Effects of Welfare Programs

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp8153. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Holger Hinte). General contact details of provider: http://www.iza.org .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.