Gender Differences in Cognition in China and Reasons for Change over Time: Evidence from CHARLS
In this paper, we model gender differences in cognitive ability in China using a new sample of middle-aged and older Chinese respondents. Modeled after the American Health and Retirement Survey (HRS), CHARLS respondents are 45 years and older and are nationally representative of the Chinese population in this age span. Our measures of cognition in CHARLS relies on two measures that proxy for different dimensions of adult cognition – episodic memory and intact mental status. We relate these cognitive measures to adult health and SES outcomes during the adult years. We find large cognitive differences to the detriment of women that were mitigated by large gender differences in education among these generations of Chinese people. These gender differences in cognition are especially concentrated in the older age groups and poorer communities within the sample. We also investigated historical, geographical, and cultural characteristics of communities to understand how they impact cognition. Economic development and environmental improvement such as having electricity, increase in wage per capita and green coverage ratio generally contribute to higher cognition ability. Women benefit more from the fruits of development – electricity and growth of green coverage ratio are conducive to lessening female disadvantage in cognition.
|Date of creation:||Jul 2013|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Phone: +49 228 3894 223
Fax: +49 228 3894 180
Web page: http://www.iza.org
|Order Information:|| Postal: IZA, Margard Ody, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany|
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Gary S. Becker & William Hubbard & Kevin Murphy, 2010.
"Explaining the Worldwide Boom in Higher Education of Women,"
2010-009, Becker Friedman Institute for Research In Economics.
- Gary S. Becker & William H. J. Hubbard & Kevin M. Murphy, 2010. "Explaining the Worldwide Boom in Higher Education of Women," Journal of Human Capital, University of Chicago Press, vol. 4(3), pages 203 - 241.
- William L. Parish & Robert J. Willis, 1993.
"Daughters, Education, and Family Budgets Taiwan Experiences,"
Journal of Human Resources,
University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 28(4), pages 863-898.
- Parish, W.L. & Willis, R.J., 1992. "Daughters, Education, and Family Budgets: Taiwan Experiences," University of Chicago - Economics Research Center 92-8, Chicago - Economics Research Center.
- William Parish & Robert J. Willis, . "Daughters, Education and Family Budgets: Taiwan Experiences," University of Chicago - Population Research Center 92-8a, Chicago - Population Research Center.
- James P. Smith & Yan Shen & John Strauss & Yang Zhe & Yaohui Zhao, 2012.
"The Effects of Childhood Health on Adult Health and SES in China,"
Economic Development and Cultural Change,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 61(1), pages 127 - 156.
- Smith, James P. & Shen, Yan & Strauss, John & Zhe, Yang & Zhao, Yaohui, 2010. "The Effects of Childhood Health on Adult Health and SES in China," IZA Discussion Papers 5318, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- James P. Smith & Yan Shen & John Strauss & Zhe Yang & Yaohui Zhao, 2010. "The Effects of Childhood Health on Adult Health and SES in China," Working Papers 809, RAND Corporation Publications Department.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp7536. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Mark Fallak)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.