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Does Cash for School Influence Young Women's Behavior in the Longer Term? Evidence from Pakistan

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  • Alam, Andaleeb

    () (World Bank)

  • Baez, Javier E.

    () (World Bank)

  • Del Carpio, Ximena

    () (World Bank)

Abstract

The Punjab Female School Stipend Program, a female-targeted conditional cash transfer program in Pakistan, was implemented in response to gender gaps in education. An early evaluation of the program shows that the enrollment of eligible girls in middle-school increased in the short term by nearly 9 percentage points. This paper uses regression discontinuity and difference-in-difference analyses to show that five years into the program implementation positive impacts do persist. Beneficiary adolescent girls are more likely to progress through and complete middle school and work less. There is suggestive evidence that participating girls delay their marriage and have fewer births by the time they are 19 years old. Also, girls who are exposed to the program later-on, and eligible for the benefits given in high school, increase their rates of matriculating into and completing high school. The persistence of impacts can potentially translate into gains in future productivity, consumption, inter-generational human capital accumulation and desired fertility. Lastly, there is no evidence that the program has negative spillover effects on educational outcomes of male siblings.

Suggested Citation

  • Alam, Andaleeb & Baez, Javier E. & Del Carpio, Ximena, 2011. "Does Cash for School Influence Young Women's Behavior in the Longer Term? Evidence from Pakistan," IZA Discussion Papers 5703, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp5703
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Khandker, Shahidur & Pitt, Mark & Fuwa, Nobuhiko, 2003. "Subsidy to Promote Girls' Secondary Education: The Female Stipend Program in Bangladesh," MPRA Paper 23688, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Felipe Barrera-Osorio & Marianne Bertrand & Leigh L. Linden & Francisco Perez-Calle, 2008. "Conditional Cash Transfers in Education Design Features, Peer and Sibling Effects Evidence from a Randomized Experiment in Colombia," NBER Working Papers 13890, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    3. Behrman, Jere R & Sengupta, Piyali & Todd, Petra, 2005. "Progressing through PROGRESA: An Impact Assessment of a School Subsidy Experiment in Rural Mexico," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 54(1), pages 237-275, October.
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    Cited by:

    1. World Bank, 2013. "Tajikistan Country Gender Assessment," World Bank Other Operational Studies 21826, The World Bank.
    2. Jacobus de Hoop & Furio C. Rosati, 2014. "Cash Transfers and Child Labor," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 29(2), pages 202-234.
    3. Elizabeth M. King & Vy T. Nguyen, 2013. "Intersecting sources of education inequality," Chapters,in: Handbook of Research on Gender and Economic Life, chapter 26, pages 421-433 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    4. Zulkhibri, Muhamed, 2016. "Conditional Cash Transfers in Developing Economy: The Case of Muslim Countries," Working Papers 2016-6, The Islamic Research and Teaching Institute (IRTI).
    5. Yeasmin Sayeed, 2016. "Effect of girls' secondary school stipend on completed schooling, age at marriage, and age at first birth," WIDER Working Paper Series 110, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    6. Lars Ivar Oppedal Berge & Kjetil Bjorvatn & Amina Mohamed Maalim & Vincent Somville & Bertil Tungodden, 2017. "Reducing early pregnancy in low-income countries: A literature review and new evidence," WIDER Working Paper Series 133, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    7. Clair Null & Clemencia Cosentino & Swetha Sridharan & Laura Meyer, "undated". "Policies and Programs to Improve Secondary Education in Developing Countries: A Review of the Evidence," Mathematica Policy Research Reports 516e420e637c4851b15e6a3f6, Mathematica Policy Research.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    conditional cash transfers; female education; female labor participation; fertility; Pakistan;

    JEL classification:

    • I25 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Education and Economic Development
    • J13 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth
    • J21 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Force and Employment, Size, and Structure
    • O15 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration

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