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Dynamics and Diversity: Ethnic Employment Differences in England and Wales, 1991-2001

  • Clark, Ken

    ()

    (University of Manchester)

  • Drinkwater, Stephen

    ()

    (University of Roehampton)

This paper uses microdata from the 1991 and 2001 Population Censuses to examine differences in the employment experiences of ethnic minorities living in England and Wales. It focuses on two main issues, firstly the extent to which the employment position of the main ethnic minority groups changed between the two Census dates and secondly, a detailed examination of employment amongst ethnic groups in 2001. In relative terms, it is found that there was an improvement in the employment rates of most ethnic minority groups over the period, some of which could be explained by enhanced levels of observable characteristics. However, the employment gap between Whites and certain ethnic minority groups remains extremely large. Religion, local deprivation and educational qualifications are important influences on employment for many of these groups.

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Paper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 1698.

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Length: 55 pages
Date of creation: Jul 2005
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp1698
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  1. William E. Even & David A. Macpherson, 1993. "The Decline of Private-Sector Unionism and the Gender Wage Gap," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 28(2), pages 279-296.
  2. Kenneth Clark & Stephen Drinkwater, 2002. "Enclaves, neighbourhood effects and employment outcomes: Ethnic minorities in England and Wales," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 15(1), pages 5-29.
  3. Blackaby, D.H. & Leslie, D.G. & Murphy, P.D. & O'Leary, N.C., 2005. "Born in Britain: How are native ethnic minorities faring in the British labour market?," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 88(3), pages 370-375, September.
  4. Guiso, Luigi & Sapienza, Paola & Zingales, Luigi, 2002. "People's Opium? Religion and Economic Attitudes," CEPR Discussion Papers 3588, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  5. Leslie, Derek & Drinkwater, Stephen, 1999. "Staying on in Full-Time Education: Reasons for Higher Participation Rates among Ethnic Minority Males and Females," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 66(261), pages 63-77, February.
  6. Battu, Harminder & Seaman, Paul & Zenou, Yves, 2011. "Job contact networks and the ethnic minorities," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 48-56, January.
  7. Robert J. Barro & Paul M. Romer, 1991. "Economic Growth," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number barr91-1, October.
    • Robert J. Barro & Paul Romer, 1993. "Economic Growth," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number barr93-1, October.
  8. Battu, Harminder & Mwale, McDonald & Zenou, Yves, 2003. "Do Oppositional Identities Reduce Employment for Ethnic Minorities?," IZA Discussion Papers 721, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  9. Ronald Oaxaca, 1971. "Male-Female Wage Differentials in Urban Labor Markets," Working Papers 396, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
  10. Berthoud, Richard, 2000. "Family formation in multi-cultural Britain: three patterns of diversity," ISER Working Paper Series 2000-34, Institute for Social and Economic Research.
  11. Blackaby, David, et al, 1999. "Unemployment among Britain's Ethnic Minorities," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 67(1), pages 1-20, January.
  12. Robert J. Barro & Rachel McCleary, 2003. "Religion and Economic Growth," NBER Working Papers 9682, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  13. Leslie, Derek & Lindley, Joanne, 2001. "The Impact of Language Ability on Employment and Earnings of Britain's Ethnic Communities," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 68(272), pages 587-606, November.
  14. Clark, Kenneth & Drinkwater, Stephen, 1998. "Ethnicity and Self-Employment in Britain," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 60(3), pages 383-407, August.
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