Women's Hours of Market Work in Germany: The Role of Parental Leave
This paper investigates trends and changes in the structural composition of women’s weekly market hours worked in former West-Germany using aggregate time-series data from the German micro census from 1957 until 2002. Aggregate weekly hours worked per working-age woman are decomposed into hours worked per employee – the intensive margin of adjustment – and the employment-to-population (EP-) ratio – the extensive margin. The decomposition is performed by women’s marital status, their age, and whether or not young children are present. The main results are that since the mid 1970s, the EP-ratio has steadily risen among female employees of all marital statuses whereas the weekly hours worked per female employee have declined. These changes have been the most distinct among married women with young children. The paper attributes much of the observed changes for married women to institutional modifications in the federal legislation governing parental leave which have occurred since 1986.
|Date of creation:||Sep 2004|
|Date of revision:|
|Publication status:||published in: R. Goméz-Salvador et al. (eds.), Labour Supply and Incentive to Work in Europe, Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2005|
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- Christopher J. Ruhm, 1998.
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- Christopher J. Ruhm, 1996. "The Economic Consequences of Parental Leave Mandates: Lessons from Europe," NBER Working Papers 5688, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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- Claudia Olivetti, 2005. "Changes in Women's Hours of Market Work: The Role of Returns to Experience," Boston University - Department of Economics - Macroeconomics Working Papers Series WP2005-008, Boston University - Department of Economics, revised Jun 2006.
- Daniela Del Boca, 2002.
"The effect of child care and part time opportunities on participation and fertility decisions in Italy,"
Journal of Population Economics,
Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 15(3), pages 549-573.
- Del Boca, Daniela, 2002. "The Effect of Child Care and Part Time Opportunities on Participation and Fertility Decisions in Italy," IZA Discussion Papers 427, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
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