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International Migration, Return Migration, and their Effects: A Comprehensive Review on the Romanian Case


  • Anghel, Remus Gabriel

    () (Romanian Institute for Research on National Minorities)

  • Botezat, Alina

    () (Romanian Academy)

  • Co?ciug, Anatolie

    () (Babeş-Bolyai University)

  • Manafi, Ioana

    () (Bucharest Academy of Economic Studies)

  • Roman, Monica

    () (Bucharest University of Economic Studies)


Romanian migration is today one of the biggest, complex, and dynamic migration to Western Europe. This paper is a comprehensive review of the existing literature that aims at providing a full picture of this dynamic migratory process and discusses its far-reaching consequences. It first presents and characterizes the Romanian migration through the different phases during and after state socialism. The second part of the paper is dedicated to unfolding the socio-economic effects of the Romanian migration addressing the remitting behavior and its development over the past years. The issue of return migration is also addressed stressing that return is not much developed, however it has significant impacts through the emergence of returnees' entrepreneurship. Finally we address some of the consequences of the medical doctors' migration which is today considered one of the main migration challenges the country is facing.

Suggested Citation

  • Anghel, Remus Gabriel & Botezat, Alina & Co?ciug, Anatolie & Manafi, Ioana & Roman, Monica, 2016. "International Migration, Return Migration, and their Effects: A Comprehensive Review on the Romanian Case," IZA Discussion Papers 10445, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp10445

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Rotte, Ralph & Vogler, Michael, 1998. "Determinants of International Migration: Empirical Evidence for Migration from Developing Countries to Germany," CEPR Discussion Papers 1920, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    2. Ken Clark & Stephen Drinkwater, 2008. "The labour-market performance of recent migrants," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 24(3), pages 496-517, Autumn.
    3. Batista, Catia & McIndoe Calder, Tara & Vicente, Pedro C., 2014. "Return Migration, Self-Selection and Entrepreneurship in Mozambique," IZA Discussion Papers 8195, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    4. Roman, Monica & Voicu, Cristina, 2010. "Some Socio-Economic Effects of Labour Migration on the Sending Country. Evidence from Romania," MPRA Paper 23527, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised Mar 2010.
    5. Nikolova, Milena & Roman, Monica & Zimmermann, Klaus F., 2017. "Left behind but doing good? Civic engagement in two post-socialist countries," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 45(3), pages 658-684.
    6. Tatiana Fic, 2013. "Migration from Bulgaria and Romania to the UK," National Institute Economic Review, National Institute of Economic and Social Research, vol. 224(1), pages 4-7, May.
    7. Dietz, Barbara, 1999. "Ethnic German Immigration from Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union to Germany: the Effects of Migrant Networks," IZA Discussion Papers 68, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    8. Gibson, John & McKenzie, David, 2011. "The microeconomic determinants of emigration and return migration of the best and brightest: Evidence from the Pacific," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 95(1), pages 18-29, May.
    9. Martine Rutten, 2009. "The Economic Impact of Medical Migration: An Overview of the Literature," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 32(2), pages 291-325, February.
    10. Zizi GOSCHIN & Monica ROMAN, 2012. "Determinants of the remitting behaviour of Romanian emigrants in an economic crisis context," Eastern Journal of European Studies, Centre for European Studies, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University, vol. 3, pages 87-103, December.
    11. Rodríguez-Planas, Núria & Vegas, Raquel, 2012. "Moroccans', Ecuadorians' and Romanians' Assimilation in Spain," IZA Discussion Papers 6542, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
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    13. Frédéric Docquier & Hillel Rapoport, 2012. "Globalization, Brain Drain, and Development," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 50(3), pages 681-730, September.
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    More about this item


    Romania; international migration; remittances; return migration; physicians migration;

    JEL classification:

    • F22 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - International Migration
    • F24 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - Remittances
    • J15 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Minorities, Races, Indigenous Peoples, and Immigrants; Non-labor Discrimination
    • P36 - Economic Systems - - Socialist Institutions and Their Transitions - - - Consumer Economics; Health; Education and Training; Welfare, Income, Wealth, and Poverty

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