Financing the Clean Development Mechanism through debt-for-efficiency swaps? Case study evidence from a Uruguayan wind farm project
As one of Kyoto’s three flexibility mechanisms for reducing the cost of compliance, the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) allows the issuance of Certified Emission Reduction (CER) credits from offset projects in non-Annex I countries. Whilst much attention has focused on the widespread use of the mechanism by China and India, the complex project cycle, and the lack of convincing baselines, little attention has been paid to the financing of CDM projects. In this paper we assess the extent to which CDM projects with public bodies should utilise debt swaps as a form of finance. The paper does this through analysing the use of a debt swap between Uruguay and Spain within a CDM wind farm project in Uruguay. The paper assesses this transaction according to a simple framework by which debt swaps can be evaluated: whether it delivers additional resources to the debtor country and/or debtor government budget; whether it delivers more resources for climate purposes; whether it has a sizeable effect on overall debt burdens (thereby creating ‘indirect’ benefits); and whether it adheres to the principles of alignment with government policy and systems (key elements within the new aid approach).
|Date of creation:||Aug 2011|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: Prinsstraat 13, B-2000 Antwerp|
Phone: +32-(0)3-265 5770
Fax: +32-(0)3-265 5771
Web page: http://www.uantwerpen.be/iob
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Cassimon, Danny & Prowse, Martin & Essers, Dennis, 2009. "The pitfalls and potential of debt-for-nature swaps: a US-Indonesian case study," IOB Working Papers 2009.07, Universiteit Antwerpen, Institute of Development Policy and Management (IOB).
- Ndikumana, Leonce, 2004.
"Additionality of debt relief and debt forgiveness, and implications for future volumes of official assistance,"
International Review of Economics & Finance,
Elsevier, vol. 13(3), pages 325-340.
- Ndikumana, Leonce, 2002. "Additionality of Debt Relief and Debt Forgiveness, and Implications for Future Volumes of Official Assistance," Working Paper Series UNU-WIDER Research Paper , World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
- Hansen, Stein, 1989. "Debt for nature swaps -- Overview and discussion of key issues," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 1(1), pages 77-93, February.
- Buckley Ross, 2009. "Debt-for-development Exchanges: The Origins of a Financial Technique," The Law and Development Review, De Gruyter, vol. 2(1), pages 53-76, June.
- Cassimon, Danny & Vaessen, Jos, 2007. "Theory, practice and potential of debt for development swaps in the Asian and Pacific region," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 31(1), pages 12-34, March.
- Krugman, Paul, 1988.
"Financing vs. forgiving a debt overhang,"
Journal of Development Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 29(3), pages 253-268, November.
- Rahman, Shaikh M. & Dinar, Ariel & Larson, Donald F., 2010. "Will the clean development mechanism mobilize anticipated levels of mitigation ?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5239, The World Bank.
- Enrique Cosio-Pascal, 2008. "The Emerging Of A Multilateral Forum For Debt Restructuring: The Paris Club," UNCTAD Discussion Papers 192, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.
- Cassimon, Danny & Essers, Dennis & Renard, Robrecht, 2009. "An assessment of debt-for-education swaps. Case studies on swap initiatives between Germany and Indonesia and between Spain and El Salvador," IOB Working Papers 2009.03, Universiteit Antwerpen, Institute of Development Policy and Management (IOB).
- Sturzenegger, Federico & Zettelmeyer, Jeromin, 2008.
"Haircuts: Estimating investor losses in sovereign debt restructurings, 1998-2005,"
Journal of International Money and Finance,
Elsevier, vol. 27(5), pages 780-805, September.
- Jeronimo Zettelmeyer & Federico Sturzenegger, 2005. "Haircuts; Estimating Investor Losses in Sovereign Debt Restructurings, 1998-2005," IMF Working Papers 05/137, International Monetary Fund.
- Jeremy Bulow & Kenneth Rogoff, 1989.
"Sovereign Debt Repurchases: No Cure for Overhang,"
NBER Working Papers
2850, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Tito Cordella & Luca A Ricci & Marta Ruiz-Arranz, 2005. "Debt Overhang or Debt Irrelevance? Revisiting the Debt-Growth Link," IMF Working Papers 05/223, International Monetary Fund.
- Emma Paulsson, 2009. "A review of the CDM literature: from fine-tuning to critical scrutiny?," International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 9(1), pages 63-80, February.
- Feyzioglu, Tarhan & Swaroop, Vinaya & Zhu, Min, 1998. "A Panel Data Analysis of the Fungibility of Foreign Aid," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 12(1), pages 29-58, January.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:iob:wpaper:2011006. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Hans De Backer)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.