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FDI versus Exports. Substitutes or Complements? A Three Nation Model and Empirical Evidence

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  • Harald Oberhofer

    ()

  • Michael Pfaffermayr

    ()

Abstract

There are two main options for companies to serve foreign markets: exports and foreign direct investment (FDI). Based on the Helpman, Melitz and Yeaple (2004) model for two host countries this paper derives a clear theoretical prediction for the decision between both strategies. A bivariate probit model is estimated using AMADEUS database to analyse the probability of using one or the other strategy. The empirical evidence indicates that a considerable number of companies use a combination of both strategies to serve foreign markets, which is in line with the analyzed three country model.

Suggested Citation

  • Harald Oberhofer & Michael Pfaffermayr, "undated". "FDI versus Exports. Substitutes or Complements? A Three Nation Model and Empirical Evidence," Working Papers 2007-28, Faculty of Economics and Statistics, University of Innsbruck.
  • Handle: RePEc:inn:wpaper:2007-28
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Markusen, James R. & Venables, Anthony J., 2000. "The theory of endowment, intra-industry and multi-national trade," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 52(2), pages 209-234, December.
    2. Hanke, Michael & Huber, Jürgen & Kirchler, Michael & Sutter, Matthias, 2010. "The economic consequences of a Tobin tax--An experimental analysis," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 74(1-2), pages 58-71, May.
    3. James R. Markusen, 2004. "Multinational Firms and the Theory of International Trade," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262633078, May.
    4. Inmaculada Martinez-Zarzoso & Celestino Suarez-Burguet, 2005. "Transport costs and trade: Empirical evidence for Latin American imports from the European union," The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 14(3), pages 353-371.
    5. Jaya Prakash Pradhan, 2004. "The determinants of outward foreign direct investment: a firm-level analysis of Indian manufacturing," Oxford Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 32(4), pages 619-639.
    6. Rafael Rob & Nikolaos Vettas, 2003. "Foreign Direct Investment and Exports with Growing Demand," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 70(3), pages 629-648.
    7. Jesus Crespo Cuaresma & Neil Foster & Johann Scharler, 2007. "Barriers to Technology Adoption, International R&D Spillovers and Growth," Working Papers 2007-09, Faculty of Economics and Statistics, University of Innsbruck.
    8. Elhanan Helpman & Marc J. Melitz & Stephen R. Yeaple, 2004. "Export Versus FDI with Heterogeneous Firms," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 94(1), pages 300-316, March.
    9. Dixit, Avinash K & Stiglitz, Joseph E, 1977. "Monopolistic Competition and Optimum Product Diversity," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 67(3), pages 297-308, June.
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    11. Kocher, Martin G. & Cherry, Todd & Kroll, Stephan & Netzer, Robert J. & Sutter, Matthias, 2008. "Conditional cooperation on three continents," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 101(3), pages 175-178, December.
    12. Andrea M. Leiter & Harald Oberhofer & Paul A. Raschky, "undated". "Productive disasters? Evidence from European firm level data," Working Papers 2007-25, Faculty of Economics and Statistics, University of Innsbruck.
    13. James B. Davies & Martin G. Kocher & Matthias Sutter, 2008. "Economics research in Canada: a long-run assessment of journal publications," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 41(1), pages 22-45, February.
    14. Head, Keith & Ries, John, 2003. "Heterogeneity and the FDI versus export decision of Japanese manufacturers," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 17(4), pages 448-467, December.
    15. Horst, Thomas, 1971. "The Theory of the Multinational Firm: Optimal Behavior under Different Tariff and Tax Rates," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 79(5), pages 1059-1072, Sept.-Oct.
    16. Sourafel Girma & Richard Kneller & Mauro Pisu, 2005. "Exports versus FDI: An Empirical Test," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 141(2), pages 193-218, July.
    17. Richard Baldwin, 2005. "Heterogeneous Firms and Trade: Testable and Untestable Properties of the Melitz Model," NBER Working Papers 11471, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. repec:wfo:wstudy:34229 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Buch, Claudia M. & Kesternich, Iris & Lipponer, Alexander & Schnitzer, Monika, 2010. "Exports Versus FDI Revisited: Does Finance Matter?," Discussion Paper Series of SFB/TR 15 Governance and the Efficiency of Economic Systems 340, Free University of Berlin, Humboldt University of Berlin, University of Bonn, University of Mannheim, University of Munich.
    3. Raphaël Chiappini, 2011. "FDI and trade: A Granger causality analysis in a heterogeneous panel," Post-Print halshs-00853441, HAL.
    4. repec:wfo:wstudy:41155 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Raphaël Chiappini, 2011. "FDI and trade: A Granger causality analysis in a heterogeneous panel," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 31(4), pages 2975-2985.
    6. Martin Falk & Mariya Hake, 2008. "A Panel Data Analysis on FDI and Exports," FIW Research Reports series I-012, FIW.
    7. Maciej Bukowski & Piotr Lewandowski & Iza Sobiech & Andrzej Zurawski & Jan Gaska & Aleksander Sniegocki, 2011. "Employment in Poland 2010. Integration and Globalization," Books and Reports published by IBS, Instytut Badan Strukturalnych, number zwp2010 edited by Maciej Bukowski.
    8. Thi Hong Hanh Pham, 2012. "Temporal causality and the dynamics of foreign direct investment and trade in Vietnam," The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 21(1), pages 83-113, September.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Exports; Foreing Direct Investment; Three Nation Model; Bivariate Probit Estimation;

    JEL classification:

    • C35 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Discrete Regression and Qualitative Choice Models; Discrete Regressors; Proportions
    • D21 - Microeconomics - - Production and Organizations - - - Firm Behavior: Theory
    • F12 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Models of Trade with Imperfect Competition and Scale Economies; Fragmentation

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