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Foreign trade of the EU27


  • Sabine Stephan
  • Jonas Löbbing


Between 1999 and 2012 the EU intensified its trade relations with countries outside the European Union (third countries). However, the major part (about 60 %) of the EU member states' external trade consists of trade with each other (intra-trade). In past years, the EU has benefited from the catching-up process of the emerging economies - especially China and Russia - and the associated strong demand for capital goods and production facilities. Consequently, China and Russia became more important trading partners for the EU, whereas the US and Japan declined in importance. Unlike EU's foreign trade with countries outside the EU, the foreign trade among EU member states has not yet recovered from the massive slump due to the economic and financial crisis 2008/2009. This is mainly due to the fact that many European countries have followed a strict austerity policy which has severely depressed domestic demand. While it may have longer-run impacts, in the short run the proposed Transatlantic Free Trade Agreement will do little to reverse the relative decline in EU-US trade, much less can it be expected to serve as a stimulus for economic recovery.

Suggested Citation

  • Sabine Stephan & Jonas Löbbing, 2013. "Foreign trade of the EU27," IMK Report 83e-2013, IMK at the Hans Boeckler Foundation, Macroeconomic Policy Institute.
  • Handle: RePEc:imk:report:83e-2013

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    1. Gabriel Felbermayr & Mario Larch & Finn Krüger & Lisandra Flach & Erdal Yalcin & Sebastian Benz, 2013. "Dimensionen und Auswirkungen eines Freihandelsabkommens zwischen der EU und den USA," ifo Forschungsberichte, ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, number 62.
    2. Gustav A. Horn & Fabian Lindner & Silke Tober & Andrew Watt, 2012. "Where now for the euro area crisis? Interim assessment and a model for a stable euro area," IMK Report 75e-2012, IMK at the Hans Boeckler Foundation, Macroeconomic Policy Institute.
    3. Fabian Lindner, 2013. "Banken treiben Eurokrise," IMK Report 82-2013, IMK at the Hans Boeckler Foundation, Macroeconomic Policy Institute.
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