The Unbanked Four-Fifths: Informality and Barriers to Financial Services in Nigeria
Four-fifths of the adult population do not have access to formal financial services in Nigeria. This paper examines the characteristics of 'unbanked' households in Nigeria, investigates the extent and determinants of supply and demand side barriers, and explores the specific role played by informality in financial exclusion. There is evidence to suggest that in Nigeria the unbanked four-fifths have lower incomes, lower education, are less likely to have a mobile phone, and have lower levels of financial sector knowledge and formal documents in their name than the remainder of the population. A non-mutually exclusive framework for analysing barriers to formal banking is developed and insights on the characteristics of sub-groups of the unbanked population who face particular barriers are provided. While poverty and distance to bank branch are the most important barriers cited, informality also plays a significant role and tackling informality directly represents an opportunity for financial inclusion policy. Using instrumental variables, the precise role played by informality in financial exclusion is estimated and for individuals with four and five documents, it is found that an additional document increases the probability of being banked by 17 percent and 15 percent respectively. Length: 45 pages
|Date of creation:||Oct 2012|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: 01|
Phone: 00 353 1 896 3888
Fax: 00 353 1 896 3939
Web page: http://www.tcd.ie/iiis/
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Patrick Honohan & Thorsten Beck, 2007. "Making Finance Work for Africa," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 6626, April.
- Djankov, Simeon & Miranda, Pedro & Seira, Enrique & Sharma, Siddharth, 2008. "Who are the unbanked ?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4647, The World Bank.
- Gordon H. Hanson, 2010.
"Why Isn't Mexico Rich?,"
Journal of Economic Literature,
American Economic Association, vol. 48(4), pages 987-1004, December.
- Gordon H. Hanson, 2010. "Why Isn't Mexico Rich?," NBER Working Papers 16470, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Borsch-Supan, Axel & Hajivassiliou, Vassilis A., 1993. "Smooth unbiased multivariate probability simulators for maximum likelihood estimation of limited dependent variable models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 58(3), pages 347-368, August.
- Vassilis A. Hajivassiliou & Axel Borsch-Supan, 1990. "Smooth Unbiased Multivariate Probability Simulators for Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Limited Dependent Variable Models," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 960, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
- Beck, Thorsten & de la Torre, Augusto, 2006. "The basic analytics of access to financial services," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4026, The World Bank.
- Oded Galor & Joseph Zeira, 1993. "Income Distribution and Macroeconomics," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 60(1), pages 35-52.
- Galor, Oded & Zeira, Joseph, 1988. "Income Distribution and Macroeconomics," MPRA Paper 51644, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 01 Sep 1989.
- Oded Galor & Joseph Zeira, 2013. "Income Distribution and Macroeconomics," Working Papers 2013-12, Brown University, Department of Economics.
- Erik Jonasson, 2011. "Informal Employment and the Role of Regional Governance," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 15(3), pages 429-441, 08.
- Jonasson, Erik, 2009. "Informal Employment and the Role of Regional Governance," Working Papers 2009:10, Lund University, Department of Economics, revised 27 Sep 2010.
- Hajivassiliou, Vassilis & McFadden, Daniel & Ruud, Paul, 1996. "Simulation of multivariate normal rectangle probabilities and their derivatives theoretical and computational results," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 72(1-2), pages 85-134.
- Vassilis A. Hajivassiliou & Daniel L. McFadden & Paul Ruud, 1993. "Simulation of Multivariate Normal Rectangle Probabilities and their Derivatives: Theoretical and Computational Results," Working Papers _024, Yale University.
- Michael King, 2012. "Is Mobile Banking Breaking the Tyranny of Distance to Bank Infrastructure? Evidence from Kenya," The Institute for International Integration Studies Discussion Paper Series iiisdp412, IIIS.
- Honohan, Patrick, 2008. "Cross-country variation in household access to financial services," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(11), pages 2493-2500, November.
- World Bank, 2008. "Finance for All? Policies and Pitfalls in Expanding Access," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 6905, April. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:iis:dispap:iiisdp411. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Colette Keleher)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.