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Trade and Employment: Evidence from Latin America and the Caribbean

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  • Carmen Pagés-Serra

    ()

  • Gustavo Márquez

    ()

Abstract

This paper examines the impact of the recent wave of trade liberalization and economic reform on employment. Four alternative measures of openness and four measures of the real exchange rate are used to measure the impact of trade reforms on manufacturing and economy-wide employment. Across a wide range of specifications, trade reforms have had a negative, albeit small, effect on employment growth. This effect has been reinforced by real exchange rate appreciation.

Suggested Citation

  • Carmen Pagés-Serra & Gustavo Márquez, 1998. "Trade and Employment: Evidence from Latin America and the Caribbean," Research Department Publications 4108, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
  • Handle: RePEc:idb:wpaper:4108
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Sebastian Edwards, 1994. "Macroeconomic Stabilization in Latin America: Recent Experience and Some Sequencing Issues," NBER Working Papers 4697, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Harrison, Ann, 1996. "Openness and growth: A time-series, cross-country analysis for developing countries," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 48(2), pages 419-447, March.
    3. Burgess, Simon M & Knetter, Michael M, 1998. "An International Comparison of Employment Adjustment to Exchange Rate Fluctuations," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 6(1), pages 151-163, February.
    4. Ilan Goldfajn & Rodrigo O. Valdés, 1999. "The Aftermath of Appreciations," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 114(1), pages 229-262.
    5. Eduardo Fern·ndez-Arias & Peter Montiel, 2001. "Reform and Growth in Latin America: All Pain, No Gain?," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 48(3), pages 1-5.
    6. Easterly, William & Loayza, Norman & Montiel, Peter, 1997. "Has Latin America's post-reform growth been disappointing?," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(3-4), pages 287-311, November.
    7. Jeffrey A. Frankel & David Romer, 1996. "Trade and Growth: An Empirical Investigation," NBER Working Papers 5476, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    8. Edwards, Sebastian, 1992. "Trade orientation, distortions and growth in developing countries," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(1), pages 31-57, July.
    9. Patricia M. Anderson, 1993. "Linear Adjustment Costs and Seasonal Labor Demand: Evidence from Retail Trade Firms," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 108(4), pages 1015-1042.
    10. Ann Harrison & Ana Revenga, 1995. "The Effects of Trade Policy Reform: What Do We Really Know?," NBER Working Papers 5225, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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    Cited by:

    1. Jonas Hjort & Jonas Poulsen, 2017. "The Arrival of Fast Internet and Employment in Africa," NBER Working Papers 23582, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Eduardo Lora & Mauricio Olivera, 1998. "Macro Policy and Employment Problems in Latin America," Research Department Publications 4116, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
    3. Carmen Pagés, 1999. "Apertura, reforma y mercado de trabajo: La experiencia de una década de cambios estructurales en el Perú," IDB Publications (Working Papers) 2137, Inter-American Development Bank.
    4. Eduardo Lora & Mauricio Olivera, 1998. "Políticas macro y problemas del empleo en América Latina," Research Department Publications 4117, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
    5. Carmen Pagés-Serra, 1999. "Opening, reform and the labor market: experience of a decade of structural changes in Peru," Research Department Publications 4166, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
    6. Rob Vos, 2007. "What we do and don’t know about trade liberalization and poverty reduction," Working Papers 50, United Nations, Department of Economics and Social Affairs.

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