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Türki̇ye’Ni̇n Dişa Açilma Oraninin Ölçümü, 1965-1995

  • Kaplan, Muhittin
  • Aslan, Alper

The results of empirical studies on the 1980 Turkish economic reform programme frequently suggest that openness has a positive impact on growth in Turkey. However, the results of empirical literature on the relationship between openness and growth have always been under criticism for using openness variables,which are not objective measures of openness, involve measurement errors and do not capture all dimensions of openness. To overcome these criticisms, in this article,we introduce a composite openness proxy obtained using the principle component methodology that captures all dimensions of openness and provide an objective and more reliable measure of openness for Turkey.

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Paper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 10603.

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Date of creation: 2006
Date of revision:
Publication status: Published in Doğuş Üniversitesi Dergisi 7.1(2006): pp. 86-98
Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:10603
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  1. Francisco Rodriguez & Dani Rodrik, 2001. "Trade Policy and Economic Growth: A Skeptic's Guide to the Cross-National Evidence," NBER Chapters, in: NBER Macroeconomics Annual 2000, Volume 15, pages 261-338 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Rod Falvey & Neil Foster & David Greenaway, . "Trade Liberalisation, Economic Crises and Growth," Discussion Papers 08/14, University of Nottingham, GEP.
  3. Harrison, Ann, 1991. "Openness and growth : a time series, cross-country analysis for developing countries," Policy Research Working Paper Series 809, The World Bank.
  4. David Greenaway & David Sapsford, . "What does Liberalisation do for Exports and Growth?," Working Papers ec4/94, Department of Economics, University of Lancaster.
  5. Jeffrey D. Sachs & Andrew M. Warner, 1995. "Natural Resource Abundance and Economic Growth," NBER Working Papers 5398, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  6. Alwyn Young, 1991. "Learning by Doing and the Dynamic Effects of International Trade," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 106(2), pages 369-405.
  7. Edwards, Sebastian, 1992. "Trade orientation, distortions and growth in developing countries," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(1), pages 31-57, July.
  8. Gavin Cameron & James Proudman & Stephen Redding, 1999. "Openness and its association with productivity growth in UK manufacturing industry," Bank of England working papers 104, Bank of England.
  9. Erich Gundlach, 1997. "Openness and economic growth in developing countries," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 133(3), pages 479-496, September.
  10. Edward E. Leamer, 1987. "Measures of Openness," UCLA Economics Working Papers 447, UCLA Department of Economics.
    • Edward E. Leamer, 1988. "Measures of Openness," NBER Chapters, in: Trade Policy Issues and Empirical Analysis, pages 145-204 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  11. Feder, Gershon, 1983. "On exports and economic growth," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 12(1-2), pages 59-73.
  12. Balassa, Bela, 1978. "Exports and economic growth : Further evidence," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 5(2), pages 181-189, June.
  13. Alwyn Young, 1991. "Learning by Doing and the Dynamic Effects of International Trade," NBER Working Papers 3577, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  14. Greenaway, David & Morgan, Wyn & Wright, Peter, 2002. "Trade liberalisation and growth in developing countries," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 67(1), pages 229-244, February.
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