IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

After the Crisis, The East Asian Dollar Standard Resurrected: An Interpretation of High Frequency Exchange Rate Pegging


  • Ronald I. McKinnon

    (Stanford University)


For more than a decade before the great crisis of 1997-98, East Asian countries pegged "softly" to the U.S. dollar. In the period of currency chaos from mid 1997 through 1998 with exchange depreciations in eight East Asian countries, massive deflationary pressure in dollar terms which was unleashed in the whole East Asian region. Surprisingly, however, the post-crisis exchange rate regime in 1999 into 2000 again exhibits high frequency pegging to the dollar much like the pre-crisis regime. In 1999-2000, there was (is) a "honeymoon" effect where short-term rates of interest in the crisis economies remained unusually low so that hot money flows were temporarily muted. But this honeymoon will end as the crisis recedes in time. Finally, I explore how the informal "rules of the game" under which the East Asian dollar standard operates might be improved to (1) lengthen the term structure of finance-including exchange rate obligations-to make the system more resilient, and (2) tighten bank regulation so as to reduce moral hazard in international capital flows.

Suggested Citation

  • Ronald I. McKinnon, 2001. "After the Crisis, The East Asian Dollar Standard Resurrected: An Interpretation of High Frequency Exchange Rate Pegging," Working Papers 042001, Hong Kong Institute for Monetary Research.
  • Handle: RePEc:hkm:wpaper:042001

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Guillermo A. Calvo & Carmen M. Reinhart, 2002. "Fear of Floating," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 117(2), pages 379-408.
    2. Carmen M. Reinhart & Graciela L. Kaminsky, 1999. "The Twin Crises: The Causes of Banking and Balance-of-Payments Problems," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 89(3), pages 473-500, June.
    3. Kawai, Masahiro & Akiyama, Shigeru, 2000. "Implications of the currency crisis for exchange rate arrangements in emerging East Asia," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2502, The World Bank.
    4. Carmen M. Reinhart, 2000. "Mirage of Floating Exchange Rates," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 90(2), pages 65-70, May.
    5. Ito, Takatoshi & Ogawa, Eiji & Sasaki, Yuri Nagataki, 1998. "How Did the Dollar Peg Fail in Asia?," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 12(4), pages 256-304, December.
    6. Guillermo A. Calvo & Carmen M. Reinhart, 2000. "Fixing for Your Life," NBER Working Papers 8006, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    7. Ronald I. McKinnon & Kenichi Ohno, 1997. "Dollar and Yen: Resolving Economic Conflict between the United States and Japan," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262133350, July.
    8. Ronald I. McKinnon & Huw Pill, 1996. "Credible Liberalizations and International Capital Flows: The "Overborrowing Syndrome"," NBER Chapters,in: Financial Deregulation and Integration in East Asia, NBER-EASE Volume 5, pages 7-50 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    9. Barry Eichengreen & Ricardo Hausmann, 1999. "Exchange rates and financial fragility," Proceedings - Economic Policy Symposium - Jackson Hole, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, pages 329-368.
    10. Taylor, John B., 1993. "Discretion versus policy rules in practice," Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(1), pages 195-214, December.
    11. Ronald I. McKinnon, 1996. "The Rules of the Game: International Money and Exchange Rates," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262133180, July.
    12. Kydland, Finn E & Prescott, Edward C, 1977. "Rules Rather Than Discretion: The Inconsistency of Optimal Plans," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 85(3), pages 473-491, June.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Chow, Hwee Kwan & Kim, Yoonbai, 2006. "Does greater exchange rate flexibility affect interest rates in post-crisis Asia?," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 478-493, June.
    2. Shu-ki Tsang, 2002. "Optimum Currency Area for Mainland HCina and Hong Kong? Empirical Tests," Working Papers 162002, Hong Kong Institute for Monetary Research.
    3. Eiji Ogawa, 2011. "Currency Baskets for East Asia," Chapters,in: Regional Integration, Economic Development and Global Governance, chapter 14 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    4. Teo, Wing Leong, 2009. "Should East Asia's currencies be pegged to the yen? The role of invoice currency," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 23(3), pages 283-308, September.
    5. Marzovilla, Olga & Mele, Marco, 2010. "From dollar peg to basket peg:the experience of Kuwait in view of the GCC monetary unification," MPRA Paper 21605, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    6. Shu-ki Tsang, 2002. "Inflation Targeting in China?," Working Papers 192002, Hong Kong Institute for Monetary Research.
    7. Ronald McKinnon & Gunther Schnabl, 2004. "The East Asian Dollar Standard, Fear of Floating, and Original Sin," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 8(3), pages 331-360, August.
    8. Taguchi, Hiroyuki, 2009. "The real effective exchange rate and trade balance in selected ASEAN countries," MPRA Paper 63216, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    9. Ulrich Volz (ed.), 2011. "Regional Integration, Economic Development and Global Governance," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 14259.
    10. Kwack, Sung Y., 2005. "Exchange rate and monetary regime options for regional cooperation in East Asia," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(1), pages 57-75, February.
    11. Chow, Hwee Kwan & Kim, Yoonbai & Sun, Wei, 2007. "Characterizing exchange rate policy in East Asia: A reconsideration," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(3), pages 448-465, June.
    12. Ronald McKinnon & Gunther Schnabl, 2002. "Synchronized Business Cycles in East Asia: Fluctuations in the Yen/Dollar Exchange Rate and China’s Stabilizing Role," Working Papers 02010, Stanford University, Department of Economics.
    13. Eiji Ogawa & Michiru Sakane, 2006. "The Chinese Yuan after the Chinese Exchange Rate System Reform," Discussion papers 06019, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
    14. Juthathip Jongwanich, 2008. "Real exchange rate overvaluation and currency crisis: evidence from Thailand," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 40(3), pages 373-382.
    15. Oya Celasun, 2003. "Exchange Rate Regime Considerations in an Oil Economy; The Case of the Islamic Republic of Iran," IMF Working Papers 03/26, International Monetary Fund.
    16. Alex Cukierman & Itay Goldstein & Yossi Spiegel, 2004. "The Choice of Exchange-Rate Regime and Speculative Attacks," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 2(6), pages 1206-1241, December.
    17. Juthathip Jongwanich, 2006. "Exchange Rate Regimes, Capital Account Opening and Real Exchange Rates: Evidence from Thailand," Departmental Working Papers 2006-01, The Australian National University, Arndt-Corden Department of Economics.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • E42 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Monetary Sytsems; Standards; Regimes; Government and the Monetary System
    • E44 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy
    • E52 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Monetary Policy
    • E60 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook - - - General
    • F31 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - Foreign Exchange
    • G18 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Government Policy and Regulation
    • G28 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Government Policy and Regulation
    • G38 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Government Policy and Regulation
    • N15 - Economic History - - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics; Industrial Structure; Growth; Fluctuations - - - Asia including Middle East
    • N25 - Economic History - - Financial Markets and Institutions - - - Asia including Middle East


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:hkm:wpaper:042001. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (HKIMR). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.