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The significance of transport costs in the Swedish forest industry

  • Hammar, Henrik

    (National Institute of Economic Research)

  • Lundgren, Tommy

    ()

    (Department of Forest Economics)

  • Sjöström, Magnus

    ()

    (National Institute of Economic Research)

Environmental and transport policies based on marginal external costs, such as a kilometer tax for heavy goods vehicles, can be constrained by the risk of industries incurring higher production costs than competi-tors in other countries. However, the significance and size of this cost is largely an empirical question. We estimate factor demand elasticities in the wood and the pulp and paper industries using firm level data for the 1990-2001 period on input prices and quantities. The results show that the introduction of a kilometer tax for heavy goods vehicles affects transport demand as well as other factor demands and output, but that the ef-fects are less pronounced in terms of changes in output. In the wood industry, production decreases by be-tween 0.6 % and 3.0 %. The corresponding decrease in the pulp and paper industry is between 0.4 % and 1.3 %. The effects on average profits are small in both industries.

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Paper provided by National Institute of Economic Research in its series Working Paper with number 97.

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Length: 19 pages
Date of creation: 01 Dec 2006
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:hhs:nierwp:0097
Note: Hammar, H. Lundgren, T. & Sjöström, M. (2008) “The significance of road transport costs in Swedish forest industry” is published in Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, 42(1): 83–104
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  1. Lau, Lawrence J., 1976. "A characterization of the normalized restricted profit function," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 131-163, February.
  2. Lundgren, Tommy & Sjostrom, Magnus, 2001. "A flexible specification of adjustment costs in dynamic factor demand models," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 72(2), pages 145-150, August.
  3. Brännlund, Runar & Lundgren, Tommy, 2001. "A Dynamic Analysis of Interfuel Substitution for Swedish Heating Plants," Umeå Economic Studies 550, Umeå University, Department of Economics.
  4. Lundgren, Tommy & Sjöström, Magnus, 1998. "A Dynamic Factor Demand Model for the Swedish Pulp Industry, 1998," Umeå Economic Studies 479, Umeå University, Department of Economics.
  5. Lau, Lawrence J, 1972. "Profit Functions of Technologies with Multiple Inputs and Outputs," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 54(3), pages 281-89, August.
  6. Brännlund, Runar & Lundgren, Tommy, 2005. "Swedish Industry and Kyoto – An Assessment of the Effects of the European CO2 Emission Permit Trading System," Umeå Economic Studies 668, Umeå University, Department of Economics.
  7. Peter A. Diamond & J. A. Mirrlees, 1968. "Optimal Taxation and Public Production," Working papers 22, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
  8. Mirrlees, James A, 1971. "An Exploration in the Theory of Optimum Income Taxation," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 38(114), pages 175-208, April.
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