Just Luck: An Experimental Study of Risk Taking and Fairness
Choices involving risk significantly a ect the distribution of income and wealth in society, but there is probably no more contentious question of justice than how to allocate the gains and losses that inevitably result from risky choices. This paper reports the results from the first experiment, to our knowledge, to study fairness views about risk-taking, where the main aim is to examine whether people's fairness considerations mainly focus on ex ante opportunities or ex post outcomes. The experiment was a two stage dictator game where the distribution phase was preceded by a risk-taking phase. Our analysis provides four main findings. First, we show that even though many participants focus exclusively on ex ante opportunities, the majority favors some redistribution ex post. Second, we find that, among the participants who redistribute ex post, a substantial share make a distinction between ex post inequalities that reflect differences in luck and ex post inequalities that reflect differences in choices. Third, we show that the appeal of the ex ante view is independent of how costly it is to avoid exposure to risk. Fourth, we find that the choices of stakeholders and impartial spectators reflect the same set of fairness considerations.
|Date of creation:||01 Feb 2010|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Phone: +47 55 959 277
Fax: 5595 9100
Web page: http://www.nhh.no/sam/
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Gary Charness & Matthew Rabin, 2002.
"Understanding Social Preferences With Simple Tests,"
The Quarterly Journal of Economics,
MIT Press, vol. 117(3), pages 817-869, August.
- Charness, Gary & Rabin, Matthew, 2002. "Understanding Social Preferences with Simple Tests," Department of Economics, Working Paper Series qt3d04q5sm, Department of Economics, Institute for Business and Economic Research, UC Berkeley.
- Charness, Gary B & Rabin, Matthew, 2001. "Understanding Social Preferences With Simple Tests," University of California at Santa Barbara, Economics Working Paper Series qt0dc3k4m5, Department of Economics, UC Santa Barbara.
- Charness, Gary & Rabin, Matthew, 2001. "Understanding Social Preferences with Simple Tests," Department of Economics, Working Paper Series qt4qz9k8vg, Department of Economics, Institute for Business and Economic Research, UC Berkeley.
- Gary Charness & Matthew Rabin, 2003. "Understanding Social Preferences with Simple Tests," General Economics and Teaching 0303002, EconWPA.
- FLEURBAEY, Marc, .
"Assessing risky social situations,"
CORE Discussion Papers RP
-2289, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
- Marc Fleurbaey, 2009. "Assessing risky social situations," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 27006, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
- Marc Fleurbaey, 2007. "Assessing Risky Social Situations," IDEP Working Papers 0703, Institut d'economie publique (IDEP), Marseille, France, revised Jan 2007.
- Fehr, Ernst & Schmidt, Klaus M., 1999.
"A theory of fairness, competition, and cooperation,"
Munich Reprints in Economics
20650, University of Munich, Department of Economics.
- Fehr, Ernst & Schmidt, Klaus M., . "A theory of fairness, competition, and cooperation," Chapters in Economics, University of Munich, Department of Economics.
- Ernst Fehr & Klaus M. Schmidt, 1999. "A Theory Of Fairness, Competition, And Cooperation," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 114(3), pages 817-868, August.
- Fehr, Ernst & Schmidt, Klaus M., 1998. "A Theory of Fairness, Competition and Cooperation," CEPR Discussion Papers 1812, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Ernst Fehr & Klaus M. Schmidt, . "A Theory of Fairness, Competition and Cooperation," IEW - Working Papers 004, Institute for Empirical Research in Economics - University of Zurich.
- Norman Frohlich & Joe Oppenheimer & Anja Kurki, 2004. "Modeling Other-Regarding Preferences and an Experimental Test," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 119(1_2), pages 91-117, 04.
- Ernst R. Berndt & Bronwyn H. Hall & Robert E. Hall & Jerry A. Hausman, 1974. "Estimation and Inference in Nonlinear Structural Models," NBER Chapters, in: Annals of Economic and Social Measurement, Volume 3, number 4, pages 653-665 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Andrews, Donald W K, 2001.
"Testing When a Parameter Is on the Boundary of the Maintained Hypothesis,"
Econometric Society, vol. 69(3), pages 683-734, May.
- Donald W.K. Andrews, 1999. "Testing When a Parameter Is on the Boundary of the Maintained Hypothesis," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 1229, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
- Alexander Cappelen & Astri Hole & Erik Sørensen & Bertil Tungodden, 2011. "The importance of moral reflection and self-reported data in a dictator game with production," Social Choice and Welfare, Springer, vol. 36(1), pages 105-120, January.
- Zizzo, D.J. & Oswald, A., 2000.
"Are People Willing to Pay to Reduce Others' Incomes?,"
The Warwick Economics Research Paper Series (TWERPS)
568, University of Warwick, Department of Economics.
- Daniel J. ZIZZO & Andrew J. OSWALD, 2001. "Are People Willing to Pay to Reduce Others'Incomes?," Annales d'Economie et de Statistique, ENSAE, issue 63-64, pages 39-65.
- Alon Harel & Zvi Safra & Uzi Segal, 2003. "Ex-Post Egalitarianism," Boston College Working Papers in Economics 563, Boston College Department of Economics.
- Jason F. Shogren, 1990. "Experiment on Coasian Bargaining over Ex Ante Lotteries and Ex Post Rewards, An," Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) Publications 90-wp63, Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) at Iowa State University.
- Christopher Ferrall, 2005. "Solving Finite Mixture Models: Efficient Computation in Economics Under Serial and Parallel Execution," Computational Economics, Society for Computational Economics, vol. 25(4), pages 343-379, June.
- Zizzo, Daniel John, 2003. "Money burning and rank egalitarianism with random dictators," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 81(2), pages 263-266, November.
- James Konow & Tatsuyoshi Saijo & Kenju Akai, 2008. "Morals and Mores? Experimental Evidence on Equity and Equality from the US and Japan," Levine's Working Paper Archive 122247000000002055, David K. Levine.
- Daniel John Zizzo, 2003. "Inequality and Procedural Fairness in a Money Burning and Stealing Experiment," Economics Series Working Papers 155, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
- Todd L. Cherry & Peter Frykblom & Jason F. Shogren, 2002.
"Hardnose the Dictator,"
02-06, Department of Economics, Appalachian State University.
- Krawczyk, Michal, 2010. "A glimpse through the veil of ignorance: Equality of opportunity and support for redistribution," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 94(1-2), pages 131-141, February.
- James Konow, 2009.
"Is fairness in the eye of the beholder? An impartial spectator analysis of justice,"
Social Choice and Welfare,
Springer, vol. 33(1), pages 101-127, June.
- Konow, James, 2006. "Is Fairness in the Eye of the Beholder? An Impartial Spectator Analysis of Justice," MPRA Paper 2730, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- James Konow, 2000. "Fair Shares: Accountability and Cognitive Dissonance in Allocation Decisions," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 90(4), pages 1072-1091, September.
- Axel Ockenfels & Gary E. Bolton, 2000. "ERC: A Theory of Equity, Reciprocity, and Competition," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 90(1), pages 166-193, March.
- Alexander W. Cappelen & Astri Drange Hole & Erik Ø Sørensen & Bertil Tungodden, 2007.
"The Pluralism of Fairness Ideals: An Experimental Approach,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 97(3), pages 818-827, June.
- Alexander W. Cappelen & Astri D. Hole & Erik Ø. Sørensen & Bertil Tungodden, 2005. "The Pluralism of Fairness Ideals: An Experimental Approach," CESifo Working Paper Series 1611, CESifo Group Munich.
- Geoffrey Brennan & Werner Güth & Luis G. Gonzalez & M. Vittoria Levati, 2005.
"Attitudes toward Private and Collective Risks in Individual and Strategic Choice Situations,"
Papers on Strategic Interaction
2005-22, Max Planck Institute of Economics, Strategic Interaction Group.
- Brennan, Geoffrey & González, Luis G. & Güth, Werner & Levati, M. Vittoria, 2008. "Attitudes toward private and collective risk in individual and strategic choice situations," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 67(1), pages 253-262, July.
- Vitezslav Babicky, 2003. "Fairness Under Risk: Insights from Dictator Games," CERGE-EI Working Papers wp217, The Center for Economic Research and Graduate Education - Economic Institute, Prague.
- Vitezslav Babicky & Andreas Ortmann & Silvester Van Koten, 2010.
"Fairness in Risky Environments: Theory and Evidence,"
CERGE-EI Working Papers
wp419, The Center for Economic Research and Graduate Education - Economic Institute, Prague.
- Silvester Van Koten & Andreas Ortmann & Vitezslav Babicky, 2013. "Fairness in Risky Environments: Theory and Evidence," Games, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 4(2), pages 208-242, May.
- Andrew POSTLEWAITE, 2001. "Social Arrangements and Economic Behavior," Annales d'Economie et de Statistique, ENSAE, issue 63-64, pages 67-87.
- John C. Harsanyi, 1955. "Cardinal Welfare, Individualistic Ethics, and Interpersonal Comparisons of Utility," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 63, pages 309.
- Brice Magdalou & Dimitri Dubois & Phu Nguyen-Van, 2009.
"Risk and Inequality Aversion in Social Dilemmas,"
09, Development and Policies Research Center (DEPOCEN), Vietnam, revised Feb 2009.
- Cappelen, Alexander W. & Tungodden, Bertil, 2006. "A Liberal Egalitarian Paradox," Economics and Philosophy, Cambridge University Press, vol. 22(03), pages 393-408, November.
- Hammond, Peter J, 1981. "Ex-ante and Ex-post Welfare Optimality under Uncertainty," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 48(191), pages 235-50, August.
This item is featured on the following reading lists or Wikipedia pages:
- Just Luck: An Experimental Study of Risk-Taking and Fairness (AER 2013) in ReplicationWiki
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:hhs:nhheco:2010_004. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dagny Hanne Kristiansen)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.