IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/hhs/iuiwop/1369.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Ethnic Background and the Value of Self-Employment Experience: Evidence from a Randomized Field Experiment

Author

Listed:
  • Aldén, Lina

    (Department of Economics and Statistic, Linnaeus University)

  • Bastani, Spencer

    (Institute for Evaluation of Labor Market and Education Policy (IFAU), Uppsala)

  • Hammarstedt, Mats

    (Linneaus University)

Abstract

In this paper, we use a randomized field experiment in Sweden to investigate how self-employment experience is valued in the labor market. We find that self-employment experience negatively impacts the probability of receiving a positive response from employers. For male applicants, this holds regardless of their ethnic background, and independently of whether we consider applicants with experience solely from self-employment, or applicants with a mix of experience from wage-employment and self-employment. For female applicants, the results are less clear-cut. Our findings provide input into the discussion about the impact of self-employment on the chances for natives and immigrants to obtain wage-employment.

Suggested Citation

  • Aldén, Lina & Bastani, Spencer & Hammarstedt, Mats, 2020. "Ethnic Background and the Value of Self-Employment Experience: Evidence from a Randomized Field Experiment," Working Paper Series 1369, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:hhs:iuiwop:1369
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://www.ifn.se/wfiles/wp/wp1369.pdf
    File Function: Full text
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Blanchflower, David G & Oswald, Andrew J, 1998. "What Makes an Entrepreneur?," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 16(1), pages 26-60, January.
    2. Hyytinen, Ari & Rouvinen, Petri, 2008. "The labour market consequences of self-employment spells: European evidence," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(2), pages 246-271, April.
    3. Fairlie, Robert W, 1999. "The Absence of the African-American Owned Business: An Analysis of the Dynamics of Self-Employment," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 17(1), pages 80-108, January.
    4. Carlsson, Magnus & Rooth, Dan-Olof, 2007. "Evidence of ethnic discrimination in the Swedish labor market using experimental data," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(4), pages 716-729, August.
    5. Stefan Eriksson & Dan-Olof Rooth, 2014. "Do Employers Use Unemployment as a Sorting Criterion When Hiring? Evidence from a Field Experiment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 104(3), pages 1014-1039, March.
    6. Robert W. Fairlie & Alicia M. Robb, 2007. "Why Are Black-Owned Businesses Less Successful than White-Owned Businesses? The Role of Families, Inheritances, and Business Human Capital," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 25(2), pages 289-323.
    7. Francine D. Blau & Lawrence M. Kahn, 2017. "The Gender Wage Gap: Extent, Trends, and Explanations," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 55(3), pages 789-865, September.
    8. Courtney Brell & Christian Dustmann & Ian Preston, 2020. "The Labor Market Integration of Refugee Migrants in High-Income Countries," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 34(1), pages 94-121, Winter.
    9. Lina Andersson & Mats Hammarstedt, 2011. "Transmission of self-employment across immigrant generations: the importance of ethnic background and gender," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 9(4), pages 555-577, December.
    10. Kaiser, Ulrich & Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj, 2011. "Is self-employment really a bad experience?: The effects of previous self-employment on subsequent wage-employment wages," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 26(5), pages 572-588, September.
    11. Philipp D. Koellinger & Julija N. Mell & Irene Pohl & Christian Roessler & Theresa Treffers, 2015. "Self-employed But Looking: A Labour Market Experiment," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 82(325), pages 137-161, January.
    12. Taylor, Mark P, 1999. "Survival of the Fittest? An Analysis of Self-Employment Duration in Britain," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 109(454), pages 140-155, March.
    13. Carlsson, Magnus & Eriksson, Stefan, 2019. "Age discrimination in hiring decisions: Evidence from a field experiment in the labor market," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 173-183.
    14. Clark, Kenneth & Drinkwater, Stephen, 2000. "Pushed out or pulled in? Self-employment among ethnic minorities in England and Wales," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 7(5), pages 603-628, September.
    15. Mats Hammarstedt, 2001. "Immigrant self-employment in Sweden - its variation and some possible determinants," Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(2), pages 147-161, April.
    16. Marianne Bertrand & Sendhil Mullainathan, 2004. "Are Emily and Greg More Employable Than Lakisha and Jamal? A Field Experiment on Labor Market Discrimination," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 94(4), pages 991-1013, September.
    17. Robert W. Fairlie & Bruce D. Meyer, 1996. "Ethnic and Racial Self-Employment Differences and Possible Explanations," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 31(4), pages 757-793.
    18. Lina Andersson, 2011. "Occupational choice and returns to self-employment among immigrants," International Journal of Manpower, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 32(8), pages 900-922, November.
    19. Rachel Croson & Uri Gneezy, 2009. "Gender Differences in Preferences," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 47(2), pages 448-474, June.
    20. Bruce, Donald & Schuetze, Herbert J., 2004. "The labor market consequences of experience in self-employment," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 11(5), pages 575-598, October.
    21. Williams, Donald R., 2000. "Consequences of self-employment for women and men in the United States," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 7(5), pages 665-687, September.
    22. Philipp Koellinger & Maria Minniti & Christian Schade, 2013. "Gender Differences in Entrepreneurial Propensity," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 75(2), pages 213-234, April.
    23. Lina Aldén & Mats Hammarstedt, 2019. "Refugee Immigration and Public-Sector Finances: Evidence from Sweden," FinanzArchiv: Public Finance Analysis, Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen, vol. 75(3), pages 297-322.
    24. Alicia Robb & Robert Fairlie, 2009. "Determinants of business success: an examination of Asian-owned businesses in the USA," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 22(4), pages 827-858, October.
    25. Andrew M. Yuengert, 1995. "Testing Hypotheses of Immigrant Self-Employment," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 30(1), pages 194-204.
    26. Lina Andersson & Mats Hammarstedt, 2010. "Intergenerational transmissions in immigrant self-employment: Evidence from three generations," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 34(3), pages 261-276, April.
    27. Evans, David S & Leighton, Linda S, 1989. "Some Empirical Aspects of Entrepreneurship," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 79(3), pages 519-535, June.
    28. George J. Borjas, 1986. "The Self-Employment Experience of Immigrants," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 21(4), pages 485-506.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Berggren, Niclas & Ljunge, Martin & Nilsson, Therese, 2022. "Immigrants’ Tolerance and Integration into Society," Working Paper Series 1447, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Mats Hammarstedt & Chizheng Miao, 2020. "Self-employed immigrants and their employees: evidence from Swedish employer-employee data," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 18(1), pages 35-68, March.
    2. Nadia Simoes & Nuno Crespo & Sandrina B. Moreira, 2016. "Individual Determinants Of Self-Employment Entry: What Do We Really Know?," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 30(4), pages 783-806, September.
    3. Lina Aldén & Mats Hammarstedt, 2016. "Discrimination in the Credit Market? Access to Financial Capital among Self-employed Immigrants," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 69(1), pages 3-31, February.
    4. Elert, Niklas & Lundin, Erik, 2020. "Gender and Climate Action," Working Paper Series 1332, Research Institute of Industrial Economics, revised 18 Feb 2022.
    5. Ahmed, Ali & Hammarstedt, Mats, 2018. "Customer Discrimination in the Fast Food Market? Experimental Evidence from a Swedish University Campus," Working Paper Series 1232, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
    6. Aldén, Lina & Bastani, Spencer & Hammarstedt, Mats & Miao, Chizheng, 2020. "Ethnic Differences in Long-Term Self-Employment," Working Paper Series 1361, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
    7. Lina Aldén & Spencer Bastani & Mats Hammarstedt & Chizheng Miao, 2022. "Immigrant-native differences in long-term self-employment," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 58(3), pages 1661-1697, March.
    8. Aldén, Lina & Hammarstedt, Mats & Miao, Chizheng, 2020. "Financial Capital and Immigrant Self-Employment: Evidence from a Swedish Reform," Working Paper Series 1359, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
    9. Emma Lappi & Johan E. Eklund & Johan Klaesson, 2022. "Does education matter for the earnings of former entrepreneurs? Longitudinal evidence using entry and exit dynamics," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 32(3), pages 827-865, July.
    10. Robert W. Fairlie & Alicia M. Robb, 2008. "Race and Entrepreneurial Success: Black-, Asian-, and White-Owned Businesses in the United States," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 026206281x, February.
    11. Lina Andersson & Mats Hammarstedt, 2011. "Transmission of self-employment across immigrant generations: the importance of ethnic background and gender," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 9(4), pages 555-577, December.
    12. Emma Neuman, 2021. "Performance and job creation among self-employed immigrants and natives in Sweden," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 56(1), pages 403-425, January.
    13. Lina Andersson, 2011. "Occupational choice and returns to self-employment among immigrants," International Journal of Manpower, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 32(8), pages 900-922, November.
    14. Fairlie, Robert W. & Lofstrom, Magnus, 2013. "Immigration and Entrepreneurship," IZA Discussion Papers 7669, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    15. Lina Andersson & Mats Hammarstedt & Shakir Hussain & Ghazi Shukur, 2013. "Ethnic origin, local labour markets and self-employment in Sweden: a multilevel approach," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 50(3), pages 885-910, June.
    16. Y Georgellis & J G Sessions & N Tsitsianis, 2005. "Self-Employment Longitudinal Dynamics: A Review of the Literature," Economic Issues Journal Articles, Economic Issues, vol. 10(2), pages 51-84, September.
    17. Marcén, Miriam, 2014. "The role of culture on self-employment," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 44(S1), pages 20-32.
    18. Failla, Virgilio & Melillo, Francesca & Reichstein, Toke, 2017. "Entrepreneurship and employment stability — Job matching, labour market value, and personal commitment," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 162-177.
    19. Monica Fisher & Paul A. Lewin, 2018. "Push and pull factors and Hispanic self-employment in the USA," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 51(4), pages 1055-1070, December.
    20. Mats Hammarstedt, 2006. "The predicted earnings differential and immigrant self-employment in Sweden," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(6), pages 619-630.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Self-employment; Wage-employment; Randomized experiment; Discrimination; Labor market outcomes;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • J15 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Minorities, Races, Indigenous Peoples, and Immigrants; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J24 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity
    • J71 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor Discrimination - - - Hiring and Firing
    • L26 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Entrepreneurship

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:hhs:iuiwop:1369. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/iuiiise.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Elisabeth Gustafsson (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/iuiiise.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.