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Mergers by Partial Acquisition

Author

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  • Lindqvist, Tobias

    (The Research Institute of Industrial Economics)

Abstract

This paper evaluates partial acquisition strategies. The model allows for buying a share of a firm before the actual acquisition takes place. Holding a share in a competing firm before the acquisition of another firm, outsider-toehold, eliminates the insiders' dilemma, i.e. profitable mergers do not occur. This strategy may thus be more profitable for a buyer than acquiring entire firms at once. Furthermore, the insiders' dilemma arises from the assumption of a positive externality on the outsider firm and acquiring an outsider-toehold is thus a signal of an anti-competitive merger.

Suggested Citation

  • Lindqvist, Tobias, 2004. "Mergers by Partial Acquisition," Working Paper Series 630, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:hhs:iuiwop:0630
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Horn, Henrik & Persson, Lars, 2001. "Endogenous mergers in concentrated markets," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 19(8), pages 1213-1244, September.
    2. Betton, Sandra & Eckbo, B Espen, 2000. "Toeholds, Bid Jumps, and Expected Payoffs in Takeovers," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 13(4), pages 841-882.
    3. Tobias Lindqvist & Johan Stennek, 2005. "The Insiders’ Dilemma: An Experiment on Merger Formation," Experimental Economics, Springer;Economic Science Association, vol. 8(3), pages 267-284, September.
    4. S. Ravid & Matthew Spiegel, 1999. "Toehold Strategies, Takeover Laws And Rival Bidders," Yale School of Management Working Papers ysm112, Yale School of Management, revised 01 Jan 2001.
    5. Stulz, Rene M & Walkling, Ralph A & Song, Moon H, 1990. " The Distribution of Target Ownership and the Division of Gains in Successful Takeovers," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 45(3), pages 817-833, July.
    6. Morton I. Kamien & Israel Zang, 1987. "The Limits of Monopolization Through Acquisition," Discussion Papers 754, Northwestern University, Center for Mathematical Studies in Economics and Management Science.
    7. Jeremy Bulow & Ming Huang & Paul Klemperer, 1999. "Toeholds and Takeovers," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 107(3), pages 427-454, June.
    8. Stephen W. Salant & Sheldon Switzer & Robert J. Reynolds, 1983. "Losses From Horizontal Merger: The Effects of an Exogenous Change in Industry Structure on Cournot-Nash Equilibrium," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 98(2), pages 185-199.
    9. Perry, Martin K & Porter, Robert H, 1985. "Oligopoly and the Incentive for Horizontal Merger," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 75(1), pages 219-227, March.
    10. Szidarovszky, F. & Yakowitz, S., 1982. "Contributions to Cournot oligopoly theory," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 28(1), pages 51-70, October.
    11. Ravid, S. Abraham & Spiegel, Matthew, 1999. "Toehold strategies, takeover laws and rival bidders," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(8), pages 1219-1242, August.
    12. Kamien, Morton I & Zang, Israel, 1993. "Monopolization by Sequential Acquisition," Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization, Oxford University Press, vol. 9(2), pages 205-229, October.
    13. Hogfeldt, Peter & Hogholm, Kenneth, 2000. "A law and finance theory of strategic blocking and preemptive bidding in takeovers," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 6(4), pages 403-425, December.
    14. repec:hhs:iuiwop:563 is not listed on IDEAS
    15. Jennings, Robert H & Mazzeo, Michael A, 1993. "Competing Bids, Target Management Resistance, and the Structure of Takeover Bids," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 6(4), pages 883-909.
    16. Sanford J. Grossman & Oliver D. Hart, 1980. "Takeover Bids, the Free-Rider Problem, and the Theory of the Corporation," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 11(1), pages 42-64, Spring.
    17. Lindqvist, Tobias, 2005. "Acquisiton Strategies: Empirical Evidence of Outsider-Toeholds," Working Paper Series 634, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
    18. Mark Bagnoli, Barton L. Lipman, 1988. "Successful Takeovers without Exclusion," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 1(1), pages 89-110.
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    Cited by:

    1. Lindqvist, Tobias, 2005. "Acquisiton Strategies: Empirical Evidence of Outsider-Toeholds," Working Paper Series 634, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
    2. Berardino Cesi, 2010. "Horizontal Mergers: A Solution Of The Insiders' Dilemma," Bulletin of Economic Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 62(2), pages 171-180, April.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Acquisition; Antitrust; Insiders' Dilemma; Mergers; Toeholds;

    JEL classification:

    • G34 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Mergers; Acquisitions; Restructuring; Corporate Governance
    • L12 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - Monopoly; Monopolization Strategies
    • L13 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - Oligopoly and Other Imperfect Markets
    • L41 - Industrial Organization - - Antitrust Issues and Policies - - - Monopolization; Horizontal Anticompetitive Practices

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