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Why Mergers Reduce Profits, and Raise Share Prices

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  • Fridolfsson, Sven-Olof

    (The Research Institute of Industrial Economics)

  • Stennek, Johan

    (The Research Institute of Industrial Economics)

Abstract

We demonstrate a "preemptive merger mechanism" which may explain the empirical puzzle why mergers reduce profits, and raise share prices. A merger may confer strong negative externalilties on the firms outside the merger. If being an "insider" is better than being an "outsider", firms may merge to preempt their partner merging with someone else. Furthermore, the pre-merger value of a merging firm is low, since it reflects the risk of becoming an outsider. These results are derived in a model of endogenous mergers which predicts the conditions under which a merger occurs, when it occurs, and how the surplus is divided.

Suggested Citation

  • Fridolfsson, Sven-Olof & Stennek, Johan, 1999. "Why Mergers Reduce Profits, and Raise Share Prices," Working Paper Series 511, Research Institute of Industrial Economics, revised 03 Dec 2001.
  • Handle: RePEc:hhs:iuiwop:0511
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Toxvaerd, Flavio, 2008. "Strategic merger waves: A theory of musical chairs," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 140(1), pages 1-26, May.
    2. Horn, Henrik & Persson, Lars, 2001. "Endogenous mergers in concentrated markets," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 19(8), pages 1213-1244, September.
    3. Norback, Pehr-Johan & Persson, Lars, 2007. "Investment liberalization -- Why a restrictive cross-border merger policy can be counterproductive," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 72(2), pages 366-380, July.
    4. Duso, Tomaso & Gugler, Klaus & Yurtoglu, Burcin B., 2011. "How effective is European merger control?," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 55(7), pages 980-1006.
    5. Lars Calmfors & Giancarlo Corsetti & Seppo Honkapohja & Gilles Saint-Paul & Hans-Werner Sinn & John Kay & Jan-Egbert Sturm & Xavier Vives, 2006. "Chapter 5: Mergers and Competition Policy in Europe," EEAG Report on the European Economy, CESifo, vol. 0, pages 101-116, March.
    6. Berg, Aron & Norbäck, Pehr-Johan & Persson, Lars, 2012. "International Mergers with Financially Constrained Owners," Working Paper Series 927, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
    7. Inderst, Roman & Wey, Christian, 2004. "The incentives for takeover in oligopoly," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 22(8-9), pages 1067-1089, November.
    8. Steffen Huck & Kai A. Konrad & Wieland Müller & Hans-Theo Normann, 2007. "The Merger Paradox and why Aspiration Levels Let it Fail in the Laboratory," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 117(522), pages 1073-1095, July.
    9. Norbäck, Pehr-Johan & Persson, Lars, 2002. "Investment Liberalization - Who Benefits from Cross Border Mergers," CEPR Discussion Papers 3166, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    10. Tomaso Duso & Klaus Gugler & Burcin Yurtoglu, 2005. "EU Merger Remedies: A Preliminary Empirical Assessment," CIG Working Papers SP II 2005-16, Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin (WZB), Research Unit: Competition and Innovation (CIG).
    11. Michael Higl & Peter Welzel, 2005. "Intra-firm Coordination and Horizontal Merger," Discussion Paper Series 269, Universitaet Augsburg, Institute for Economics.
    12. Gunther Tichy, 2001. "What Do We Know about Success and Failure of Mergers?," Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, Springer, vol. 1(4), pages 347-394, December.
    13. Norbäck, Pehr-Johan & Persson, Lars, 2001. "Investment Liberalization - Who Benefits from Cross-Border Mergers & Acquisitions?," Working Paper Series 569, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
    14. Lars Calmfors & Giancarlo Corsetti & Seppo Honkapohja & John Kay & Gilles Saint-Paul & Hans-Werner Sinn & Jan-Egbert Sturm & Xavier Vives, 2006. "EEAG European Economic Advisory Group at CESifo: Report on the European Economy 2006," EEAG Report on the European Economy, CESifo, vol. 0, pages 1-120, March.
    15. Misund, Bård & Asche, Frank & Osmundsen, Petter, 2008. "Industry upheaval and valuation: Empirical evidence from the international oil and gas industry," The International Journal of Accounting, Elsevier, vol. 43(4), pages 398-424, December.
    16. Rosato, Antonio, 2008. "“Matching Auctions” for Hostile Takeovers: A Model with Endogenous Target," MPRA Paper 15083, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 07 Jan 2009.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Mergers & acquisitions; definsive merger; coalition formation; antitrust policy;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • C78 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Game Theory and Bargaining Theory - - - Bargaining Theory; Matching Theory
    • G34 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Mergers; Acquisitions; Restructuring; Corporate Governance
    • L13 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - Oligopoly and Other Imperfect Markets

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