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Revenue Neutral Trade Reform with Many Households, Quotas and Tariffs




Government budget balance forces the endogenous use of distortionary tax instruments when an exogenous reform is implemented. The aggregate efficiency of such reforms is based on comparisons of simple summary measures of the Marginal Cost of Funds of the various tariff or quota changes with the Marginal Cost of Funds of the alternative taxes, or of the Marginal Benefit of Government supplied goods. The aggregate efficiency of tariff liberalization is dubious, while quota liberalization is more likely to be efficient. Social welfare rises with aggregate efficiency unless distribution effects are perverse. Plausible sufficient conditions for non-perverse distributional effects are provided. The results frame a diagnostic method for sensitivity analysis in evaluations of trade and tax policies.

Suggested Citation

  • Anderson, James E., 1997. "Revenue Neutral Trade Reform with Many Households, Quotas and Tariffs," Seminar Papers 626, Stockholm University, Institute for International Economic Studies.
  • Handle: RePEc:hhs:iiessp:0626

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Anderson, James E & Neary, J Peter, 1994. "The Trade Restrictiveness of the Multi-fibre Arrangement," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 8(2), pages 171-189, May.
    2. Fukushima, Takashi, 1981. "A dynamic quantity adjustment process in a small open economy, and welfare effects of tariff changes," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 11(4), pages 513-529, November.
    3. Tatsuo Hatta, 1977. "A Theory of Piecemeal Policy Recommendations," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 44(1), pages 1-21.
    4. James E. Anderson, 1996. "Trade Reform with a Government Budget Constraint," NBER Working Papers 5827, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    5. Krishna, Kala & Erzan, Refik & Tan, Ling Hui, 1994. "Rent Sharing in the Multi-fibre Arrangement: Theory and Evidence from U.S. Apparel Imports from Hong Kong," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 2(1), pages 62-73, February.
    6. Levy, Santiago & van Wijnbergen, Sweder, 1995. "Transition Problems in Economic Reform: Agriculture in the North American Free Trade Agreement," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 85(4), pages 738-754, September.
    7. Peter A. Diamond & J. A. Mirrlees, 1968. "Optimal Taxation and Public Production," Working papers 22, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
    8. Lopez, Ramon & Panagariya, Arvind, 1992. "On the Theory of Piecemeal Tariff Reform: The Case of Pure Imported Intermediate Inputs," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(3), pages 615-625, June.
    9. Ahmad, Ehtisham & Stern, Nicholas, 1990. "Tax Reform and Shadow Prices for Pakistan," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 42(1), pages 135-159, January.
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    Cited by:

    1. Mishkin, Frederic S., 1998. "International Experiences With Different Monetary Policy Regimes," Seminar Papers 648, Stockholm University, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    2. Lars E. O. Svensson, 2000. "The First Year of the Eurosystem: Inflation Targeting or Not?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 90(2), pages 95-99, May.
    3. Anderson, James E. & Martin, Will, 1998. "Evaluating public expenditures when governments must rely on distortionary taxation," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1981, The World Bank.
    4. Lindbeck, A., 1998. "Swedish Lessons for Post-Socialist Countries," Papers 645, Stockholm - International Economic Studies.
    5. Assar Lindbeck, 2002. "Pensions and Contemporary Socioeconomic Change," NBER Chapters,in: Social Security Pension Reform in Europe, pages 19-48 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    6. Francois, Joseph & Rojas-Romagosa, Hugo, 2005. "Equity, welfare, and the setting of trade policy in general equilibrium," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3731, The World Bank.
    7. Lindbeck, A. & Wikstrom, S., 1999. "The ICT Revoluation in Consumer Product Markets," Papers 670, Stockholm - International Economic Studies.
    8. Keen, Michael & Ligthart, Jenny E., 2002. "Coordinating tariff reduction and domestic tax reform," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(2), pages 489-507, March.
    9. Jan G. Jorgensen & Philipp J. H. Schröder, 2002. "Effects of Tariffication: Tariffs, Quotas and VERs under Monopolistic Competition," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 269, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
    10. Persson, Mats, 2000. "Five Fallacies in the Social Security Debate," Seminar Papers 686, Stockholm University, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    11. Taylor, John B., 1999. "The robustness and efficiency of monetary policy rules as guidelines for interest rate setting by the European central bank," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(3), pages 655-679, June.

    More about this item


    aggregate efficiency; tariff liberalization; quota liberalization; Social welfare; non-perverse distributional effects;

    JEL classification:

    • F13 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade Policy; International Trade Organizations
    • H21 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Efficiency; Optimal Taxation


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