Effects of Tariffication: Tariffs, Quotas and VERs under Monopolistic Competition
Recent rounds of GATT and later WTO have advocated widespread tariffication, meaning that existing non-tariff barriers be converted into import equivalent tariffs. From an economic point of view, the effects of such tariffication are not entirely clear. The paper presents a general equilibrium model with monopolistic competition to examine the welfare effects of tariffication. The ranking of pre- and post-tariffication welfare depends crucially on the nature of the initial trade barrier and the tariff tool applied. Tariffication using a specific (an ad valorem) tariff results in the same (a reduced) welfare level compared to an initial quota, whereas welfare is increased (the same) compared to an initial VER.
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