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Environmental Taxation in Airline Markets

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  • Carlsson , Fredrik

    () (Department of Economics, School of Economics and Commercial Law, Göteborg University)

Abstract

Over the last two decades many airline markets have been deregulated, resulting in increased competition and use of different types of networks. At the same time there has been an intense discussion on environmental taxation of airline traffic. It is likely that an optimal environmental tax and the effects of a tax differ between different types of aviation markets. In this paper we derive optimal environmental taxes for different types of airline markets. The first type of market is a multiproduct monopoly airline operating either a point-to-point network or a hub-and-spoke network. The optimal tax is shown to be similar in construction to an optimal tax for a monopolist. We also compare the environmental impact of the two types of networks. Given no differences in marginal damages between airports we find that an airline will always choose the network with the highest environmental damages. The second type of market we investigate is a multiproduct duopoly, where two airlines compete in both passengers and flights. The formulation of the optimal tax is similar to the optimal tax of a single product oligopoly. However, we also show that it is, because of strategic effects, difficult to determine the effects of the tax on the number of flights.

Suggested Citation

  • Carlsson , Fredrik, 2000. "Environmental Taxation in Airline Markets," Working Papers in Economics 24, University of Gothenburg, Department of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:hhs:gunwpe:0024
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Szidarovszky, Ferenc & Li, Weiye, 2000. "A note on the stability of a Cournot-Nash equilibrium: the multiproduct case with adaptive expectations," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(1), pages 101-107, February.
    2. Barnett, A H, 1980. "The Pigouvian Tax Rule under Monopoly," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 70(5), pages 1037-1041, December.
    3. Severin Borenstein, 1992. "The Evolution of U.S. Airline Competition," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 6(2), pages 45-73, Spring.
    4. Fredrik Carlsson, 2000. "Environmental Taxation and Strategic Commitment in Duopoly Models," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 15(3), pages 243-256, March.
    5. Brueckner, Jan K. & Spiller, Pablo T., 1991. "Competition and mergers in airline networks," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 9(3), pages 323-342, September.
    6. Bulow, Jeremy I & Geanakoplos, John D & Klemperer, Paul D, 1985. "Multimarket Oligopoly: Strategic Substitutes and Complements," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 93(3), pages 488-511, June.
    7. Carlsson, F., 1999. "Incentive-based environmental regulation of domestic civil aviation in Sweden," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 6(2), pages 75-82, April.
    8. Richard Schmalensee, 1977. "Comparative Static Properties of Regulated Airline Oligopolies," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 8(2), pages 565-576, Autumn.
    9. Tae Hoon Oum & Anming Zhang & Yimin Zhang, 1995. "Airline Network Rivalry," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 28(4a), pages 836-857, November.
    10. R. Simpson, 1995. "Optimal pollution taxation in a Cournot duopoly," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 6(4), pages 359-369, December.
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    Cited by:

    1. Carlsson, Fredrik, 2002. "Airport Marginal Cost Pricing: Discussion and an Application to Swedish Airports," Working Papers in Economics 85, University of Gothenburg, Department of Economics.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Environmental taxation; Multiproduct duopoly; Aviation; Networks;

    JEL classification:

    • D62 - Microeconomics - - Welfare Economics - - - Externalities
    • L13 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - Oligopoly and Other Imperfect Markets

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