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Educational Reforms & Challenges in Southeast Asia


  • Sjöholm, Fredrik

    () (European Institute of Japanese Studies)


Southeast Asia’s traditional export of relatively low-skilled products is facing increased competition. There is therefore a general need to upgrade production in the region, which requires a more skilled and educated labour force. Historically, education has not been emphasized in Southeast Asia but there are indications that this is about to change. This paper starts with a general discussion on the educational situation and changes in the region. It continues with a close look at three ASEAN countries – Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore – with special focus on some of the obstacles for reforms, such as financial and political constraints, that are present in these countries.

Suggested Citation

  • Sjöholm, Fredrik, 2002. "Educational Reforms & Challenges in Southeast Asia," EIJS Working Paper Series 152, Stockholm School of Economics, The European Institute of Japanese Studies.
  • Handle: RePEc:hhs:eijswp:0152

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Esther Duflo, 2001. "Schooling and Labor Market Consequences of School Construction in Indonesia: Evidence from an Unusual Policy Experiment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 91(4), pages 795-813, September.
    2. Baumol, William J., 1996. "Entrepreneurship: Productive, unproductive, and destructive," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 11(1), pages 3-22, January.
    3. Booth, Anne, 1999. "Initial Conditions and Miraculous Growth: Why is South East Asia Different From Taiwan and South Korea?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 301-321, February.
    4. Alwyn Young, 1995. "The Tyranny of Numbers: Confronting the Statistical Realities of the East Asian Growth Experience," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 110(3), pages 641-680.
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    More about this item


    Education; Southeast Asia; Structural Change; Economic Crisis;

    JEL classification:

    • I20 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - General
    • I28 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Government Policy
    • O15 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration

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