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Targets of violence: evidence from India's Naxalite conflict

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  • Oliver Vanden Eynde

    (PSE - Paris-Jourdan Sciences Economiques - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, PSE - Paris School of Economics)

Abstract

This paper considers how shocks to rural incomes intensify violence in India's Naxalite insurgency. Using variation in annual rainfall in a panel of district level fatal incidents between 2005 and 2011, I find that deficient rainfall generally spurs targeted violence against civilians, but the number of Maoist attacks against security forces only increases in mining districts. This finding consistent with the idea that the relationship between income shocks and conflict depends on the type of targets and the revenue sources of the rebels. In particular, the fighting capacity of rebel groups against government forces could benefit more from negative rural income shocks if the group's resources are sufficiently independent from the agricultural economy, as is the case in mining areas.

Suggested Citation

  • Oliver Vanden Eynde, 2015. "Targets of violence: evidence from India's Naxalite conflict," PSE Working Papers halshs-01202689, HAL.
  • Handle: RePEc:hal:psewpa:halshs-01202689
    Note: View the original document on HAL open archive server: https://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-01202689
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Thiemo Fetzer, 2014. "Can Workfare Programs Moderate Violence? Evidence from India," STICERD - Economic Organisation and Public Policy Discussion Papers Series 53, Suntory and Toyota International Centres for Economics and Related Disciplines, LSE.
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    6. Oliver Vanden Eynde, 2015. "Mining Royalties and Incentives for Security Operations: Evidence from India's Red Corridor," PSE Working Papers halshs-01245496, HAL.
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    17. repec:cup:apsrev:v:100:y:2006:i:03:p:429-447_06 is not listed on IDEAS
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    Cited by:

    1. Thiemo Fetzer, 2014. "Can Workfare Programs Moderate Violence? Evidence from India," STICERD - Economic Organisation and Public Policy Discussion Papers Series 53, Suntory and Toyota International Centres for Economics and Related Disciplines, LSE.
    2. Thiemo, Fetzer & Marden, Samuel, 2016. "Take what you can: property rights, contestability and conflict," CAGE Online Working Paper Series 285, Competitive Advantage in the Global Economy (CAGE).
    3. Khanna, Gaurav & Zimmermann, Laura, 2017. "Guns and butter? Fighting violence with the promise of development," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 124(C), pages 120-141.
    4. Sarsons, Heather, 2015. "Rainfall and conflict: A cautionary tale," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 115(C), pages 62-72.
    5. Morelli, Massimo & Rohner, Dominic, 2015. "Resource concentration and civil wars," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 117(C), pages 32-47.
    6. Crost, Benjamin & Duquennois, Claire & Felter, Joseph & Rees, Daniel I., 2015. "Climate Change, Agricultural Production and Civil Conflict: Evidence from the Philippines," IZA Discussion Papers 8965, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    7. Michael D. König & Dominic Rohner & Mathias Thoenig & Fabrizio Zilibotti, 2016. "The Long-lasting Shadow of the Allied Occupation of Austria on its Spatial Equilibrium," HiCN Working Papers 231, Households in Conflict Network.
    8. Oliver Vanden Eynde, 2015. "Mining Royalties and Incentives for Security Operations: Evidence from India's Red Corridor," PSE Working Papers halshs-01245496, HAL.
    9. Fetzer, Thiemo & Eynde, Oliver Vanden & Wright, Austin L., 2018. "Security Transitions," CAGE Online Working Paper Series 383, Competitive Advantage in the Global Economy (CAGE).
    10. Thiemo Fetzer, 2014. "Can Workfare Programs Moderate Violence? Evidence from India," STICERD - Economic Organisation and Public Policy Discussion Papers Series 053, Suntory and Toyota International Centres for Economics and Related Disciplines, LSE.
    11. Devash Kapur, Kishore Gawande, Shanker Satyanath, 2012. "Renewable Resource Shocks and Conflict in India’s Maoist Belt," Working Papers 302, Center for Global Development.
    12. Xavier Fontaine & Katsunori Yamada, 2012. "Economic Comparison and Group Identity: Lessons from India," PSE Working Papers hal-00711212, HAL.
    13. Gomes, Joseph Flavian, 2015. "The Political Economy of the Maoist Conflict in India: An Empirical Analysis," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 68(C), pages 96-123.
    14. Rémi BAZILLIER & Victoire GIRARD, 2017. "The gold digger and the machine. Evidence on the distributive effect of the artisanal and industrial gold rushes in Burkina Faso," LEO Working Papers / DR LEO 2545, Orleans Economics Laboratory / Laboratoire d'Economie d'Orleans (LEO), University of Orleans.
    15. Austin L. Wright, 2016. "Economic Shocks and Rebel," HiCN Working Papers 232, Households in Conflict Network.
    16. Xavier Fontaine & Katsunori Yamada, 2012. "Economic Comparison and Group Identity: Lessons from India," Working Papers hal-00711212, HAL.
    17. Sekhri, Sheetal & Storeygard, Adam, 2014. "Dowry deaths: Response to weather variability in India," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 111(C), pages 212-223.
    18. Miaari, Sami & Zussman, Asaf & Zussman, Noam, 2014. "Employment restrictions and political violence in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 101(C), pages 24-44.
    19. Yashodhan Ghorpade, 2016. "Calamity, Conflict and Cash Transfers: How Violence Affects Access to Aid in Pakistan," HiCN Working Papers 223, Households in Conflict Network.
    20. Oliver Vanden Eynde, 2015. "Mining Royalties and Incentives for Security Operations: Evidence from India's Red Corridor," Working Papers halshs-01245496, HAL.
    21. Richard Akresh, 2016. "Climate Change, Conflict, and Children," HiCN Working Papers 221, Households in Conflict Network.
    22. repec:eee:jeeman:v:88:y:2018:i:c:p:379-395 is not listed on IDEAS
    23. Saurabh Singhal & Rahul Nilakantan, 2012. "Naxalite Insurgency and the Economic Benefits of a Unique Robust Security Response," HiCN Working Papers 127, Households in Conflict Network.
    24. Jonathan Colmer, 2013. "Climate Variability, Child Labour and Schooling: Evidence on the Intensive and Extensive Margin," Working Papers 2013.81, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
    25. Jean-Paul Azam & Kartika Bhatia, 2017. "Provoking insurgency in a federal state: theory and application to India," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 170(3), pages 183-210, March.

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    Keywords

    Violence; India;

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