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Les conséquences environnementales des inégalités économiques : structuration théorique et perspectives de recherche (In French)

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  • Alexandre BERTHE
  • Luc ELIE

Abstract

Le renforcement actuel des inégalités économiques, souvent considéré comme intrinsèquement néfaste, est de plus en plus reconnu comme générateur d’effets secondaires, par exemple sur la santé ou la croissance. Face à la persistance de la crise environnementale contemporaine, le rôle de ces inégalités dans la dégradation de l’environnement se pose également de manière exacerbée. Malgré un nombre important de contributions, ce phénomène ne fait l’objet d’aucun consensus tant sur le plan théorique qu’empirique. Le premier apport de cet article est de proposer un cadre d’analyse permettant de révéler la diversité des mécanismes envisagés théoriquement et de les positionner les uns par rapport aux autres. Il apparaît que les conclusions des auteurs sur ce sujet dépendent des hypothèses qu’ils posent concernant 1) la relation entre revenu individuel et pression environnementale individuelle, 2) l’impact des inégalités sur les normes sociales influençant les comportements individuels de consommation, 3) l’intérêt des groupes sociaux à la dégradation ou la protection de l’environnement, 4) la façon dont ces intérêts se révèlent en demande politique et 5) la façon dont les demandes politiques se confrontent pour se traduire en une décision politique. Le second apport de notre travail est d’identifier les contributions et les limites des analyses empiriques traitant du sujet. Bien que permettant de tester la nature générale de la relation causale entre inégalité et environnement, la méthode utilisée ne permet pas une prise en compte de la diversité des mécanismes théoriques. Dans cette perspective, nous proposons un programme de recherche reposant sur l’investigation empirique des cinq hypothèses précédemment mentionnées par une approche récursive.

Suggested Citation

  • Alexandre BERTHE & Luc ELIE, 2014. "Les conséquences environnementales des inégalités économiques : structuration théorique et perspectives de recherche (In French)," Cahiers du GREThA 2014-18, Groupe de Recherche en Economie Théorique et Appliquée.
  • Handle: RePEc:grt:wpegrt:2014-18
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    File URL: http://cahiersdugretha.u-bordeaux4.fr/2014/2014-18.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Inégalités économiques; pressions environnementales; politiques environnementales;

    JEL classification:

    • O13 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Agriculture; Natural Resources; Environment; Other Primary Products
    • O15 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration
    • Q53 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Air Pollution; Water Pollution; Noise; Hazardous Waste; Solid Waste; Recycling
    • Q56 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Environment and Development; Environment and Trade; Sustainability; Environmental Accounts and Accounting; Environmental Equity; Population Growth

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