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Les conséquences environnementales des inégalités économiques : structuration théorique et perspectives de recherche (In French)

Listed author(s):
  • Alexandre BERTHE
  • Luc ELIE

Le renforcement actuel des inégalités économiques, souvent considéré comme intrinsèquement néfaste, est de plus en plus reconnu comme générateur d’effets secondaires, par exemple sur la santé ou la croissance. Face à la persistance de la crise environnementale contemporaine, le rôle de ces inégalités dans la dégradation de l’environnement se pose également de manière exacerbée. Malgré un nombre important de contributions, ce phénomène ne fait l’objet d’aucun consensus tant sur le plan théorique qu’empirique. Le premier apport de cet article est de proposer un cadre d’analyse permettant de révéler la diversité des mécanismes envisagés théoriquement et de les positionner les uns par rapport aux autres. Il apparaît que les conclusions des auteurs sur ce sujet dépendent des hypothèses qu’ils posent concernant 1) la relation entre revenu individuel et pression environnementale individuelle, 2) l’impact des inégalités sur les normes sociales influençant les comportements individuels de consommation, 3) l’intérêt des groupes sociaux à la dégradation ou la protection de l’environnement, 4) la façon dont ces intérêts se révèlent en demande politique et 5) la façon dont les demandes politiques se confrontent pour se traduire en une décision politique. Le second apport de notre travail est d’identifier les contributions et les limites des analyses empiriques traitant du sujet. Bien que permettant de tester la nature générale de la relation causale entre inégalité et environnement, la méthode utilisée ne permet pas une prise en compte de la diversité des mécanismes théoriques. Dans cette perspective, nous proposons un programme de recherche reposant sur l’investigation empirique des cinq hypothèses précédemment mentionnées par une approche récursive.

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Paper provided by Groupe de Recherche en Economie Théorique et Appliquée in its series Cahiers du GREThA with number 2014-18.

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Date of creation: 2014
Handle: RePEc:grt:wpegrt:2014-18
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