IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/frz/wpaper/wp2012_15.rdf.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Upward Pricing Pressure in Two-Sided Markets

Author

Listed:
  • Pauline Affeldt
  • Lapo Filistrucchi

    () (Università degli Studi di Firenze,)

  • Tobias J. Klein

Abstract

Pricing pressure indices have recently been proposed as alternative screening devices for horizontal mergers involving differentiated products. We extend the concept of Upward Pricing Pressure (UPP) proposed by Farrell and Shapiro (2010) to two-sided markets. Examples of such markets are the newspaper market, where the demand for advertising is related to the number of readers, and the market for online search, where advertising demand depends on the number of users. The formulas we derive are useful for screening mergers among two-sided platforms. Due to the two-sidedness they depend on four sets of diversion ratios that can either be estimated using market-level demand data or elicited in surveys. In an application, we evaluate a hypothetical merger in the Dutch daily newspaper market. Our results indicate that it is important to take the two-sidedness of the market into account when evaluating UPP.

Suggested Citation

  • Pauline Affeldt & Lapo Filistrucchi & Tobias J. Klein, 2012. "Upward Pricing Pressure in Two-Sided Markets," Working Papers - Economics wp2012_15.rdf, Universita' degli Studi di Firenze, Dipartimento di Scienze per l'Economia e l'Impresa.
  • Handle: RePEc:frz:wpaper:wp2012_15.rdf
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.disei.unifi.it/upload/sub/pubblicazioni/repec/pdf/wp15_2012.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Sonia Jaffe & Glen Weyl, 2011. "Price Theory and Merger Guidelines, II," Antitrust Chronicle, Competition Policy International, vol. 12.
    2. Farrell Joseph & Shapiro Carl, 2010. "Antitrust Evaluation of Horizontal Mergers: An Economic Alternative to Market Definition," The B.E. Journal of Theoretical Economics, De Gruyter, vol. 10(1), pages 1-41, March.
    3. Werden, Gregory J, 1996. "A Robust Test for Consumer Welfare Enhancing Mergers among Sellers of Differentiated Products," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 44(4), pages 409-413, December.
    4. Lapo Filistrucchi & Tobias Klein & Thomas Michielsen, 2010. "Merger Simulation in a Two-Sided Market: The Case of the Dutch Daily Newspapers," Working Papers 10-15, NET Institute.
    5. Sonia Jaffe & E. Glen Weyl, 2013. "The First-Order Approach to Merger Analysis," American Economic Journal: Microeconomics, American Economic Association, vol. 5(4), pages 188-218, November.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Stefan Behringer & Lapo Filistrucchi, 2015. "Areeda–Turner in Two-Sided Markets," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer;The Industrial Organization Society, vol. 46(3), pages 287-306, May.
    2. Lapo Filistrucchi & Tobias J. Klein, 2013. "Price Competition in Two-Sided Markets with Heterogeneous Consumers and Network Effects," Working Papers 13-20, NET Institute.
    3. Filistrucchi, L. & Geradin, D.A.A.G. & van Damme, E.E.C., 2012. "Identifying Two-Sided Markets," Discussion Paper 2012-008, Tilburg University, Tilburg Law and Economic Center.
    4. Budzinski, Oliver, 2017. "Wettbewerbsregeln für das Digitale Zeitalter - Die Ökonomik personalisierter Daten, Verbraucherschutz und die 9. GWB-Novelle," Ilmenau Economics Discussion Papers 108, Ilmenau University of Technology, Institute of Economics.
    5. repec:ksa:szemle:1820 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Garcia Pires, Armando J., 2014. "Media diversity, advertising, and adaptation of news to readers’ political preferences," Information Economics and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 28(C), pages 28-38.
    7. Karle, Heiko & Peitz, Martin & Reisinger, Markus, 2017. "Segmentation versus Agglomeration: Competition between Platforms with Competitive Sellers," CEPR Discussion Papers 12435, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    8. Volodymyr Bilotkach & Nicholas G. Rupp & Vivek Pai, 2013. "Value of a Platform to a Seller: Case of American Airlines and Online Travel Agencies," Working Papers 13-08, NET Institute.
    9. repec:bla:jindec:v:66:y:2018:i:3:p:570-609 is not listed on IDEAS
    10. Trost, Michael, 2018. "The whole is greater than the sum of its parts: Pricing pressure indices for mergers of vertically integrated firms," Hohenheim Discussion Papers in Business, Economics and Social Sciences 06-2018, University of Hohenheim, Faculty of Business, Economics and Social Sciences.
    11. Tommy Staahl Gabrielsen & Bjørn Olav Johansen & Teis Lunde Lømo, 2018. "Resale Price Maintenance In Two‐Sided Markets," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 66(3), pages 570-609, September.
    12. David S. Evans & Richard Schmalensee, 2013. "The Antitrust Analysis of Multi-Sided Platform Businesses," NBER Working Papers 18783, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    13. Haucap, Justus & Heimeshoff, Ulrich & Klein, Gordon J. & Rickert, Dennis & Wey, Christian, 2013. "Inter-format competition among retailers: The role of private label products in market delineation," DICE Discussion Papers 101, University of Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf Institute for Competition Economics (DICE).
    14. Etro, Federico, 2013. "Advertising and search engines. A model of leadership in search advertising," Research in Economics, Elsevier, vol. 67(1), pages 25-38.
    15. Andreea Cosnita-Langlais & Bjørn Olav Johansen & Lars Sorgard, 2018. "Upward Price Pressure in Two-Sided Markets: Incorporating Feedback Effects," EconomiX Working Papers 2018-3, University of Paris Nanterre, EconomiX.
    16. repec:kap:revind:v:54:y:2019:i:3:d:10.1007_s11151-018-9650-z is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Merger evaluation; two-sided markets; network effects; UPP.;

    JEL classification:

    • L13 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - Oligopoly and Other Imperfect Markets
    • L40 - Industrial Organization - - Antitrust Issues and Policies - - - General
    • L82 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Services - - - Entertainment; Media

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:frz:wpaper:wp2012_15.rdf. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Giorgio Ricchiuti). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/defirit.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.