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The whole is greater than the sum of its parts: Pricing pressure indices for mergers of vertically integrated firms


  • Trost, Michael


The paper analyzes gross upward pricing pressure indices called iGUPPI to assess the effects of a merger between vertically integrated firms where in the downstream market also independent rivals are active. Such indices could be used e.g. to screen mergers between mobile network operators which compete with mobile virtual network operators in the downstream retail market. It is shown that the iGUPPI for the downstream market corresponds to the sum of two well-known upward pricing pressure indices, the GUPPI concept of Salop/Moresi (2009) and the vGUPPI concept of Moresi/Salop (2013). Such a simple decomposition however does not hold for the upstream market a priori. Here, additional effects arise which are not included by the two concepts. Further assumptions on the price reactions of the downstream divisions to increases in the input prices are imposed so that the iGUPPI for the upstream market allows for a decomposition into an upstream market version of the GUPPI and the vGUPPI.

Suggested Citation

  • Trost, Michael, 2018. "The whole is greater than the sum of its parts: Pricing pressure indices for mergers of vertically integrated firms," Hohenheim Discussion Papers in Business, Economics and Social Sciences 06-2018, University of Hohenheim, Faculty of Business, Economics and Social Sciences.
  • Handle: RePEc:zbw:hohdps:062018

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Andreea Cosnita-Langlais & Bjørn Olav Johansen & Lars Sorgard, 2018. "Upward Price Pressure in Two-Sided Markets: Incorporating Feedback Effects," EconomiX Working Papers 2018-3, University of Paris Nanterre, EconomiX.
    2. Neurohr, Bertram, 2016. "Upward pricing pressure under capacity constraints, kinked demand and other cases of a constrained pre-merger equilibrium," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 139(C), pages 49-51.
    3. Pauline Affeldt & Lapo Filistrucchi & Tobias J. Klein, 2013. "Upward Pricing Pressure in Two‐sided Markets," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 123(11), pages 505-523, November.
    4. Farrell Joseph & Shapiro Carl, 2010. "Antitrust Evaluation of Horizontal Mergers: An Economic Alternative to Market Definition," The B.E. Journal of Theoretical Economics, De Gruyter, vol. 10(1), pages 1-41, March.
    5. Mas-Colell, Andreu & Whinston, Michael D. & Green, Jerry R., 1995. "Microeconomic Theory," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780195102680.
    6. Robert Willig, 2011. "Unilateral Competitive Effects of Mergers: Upward Pricing Pressure, Product Quality, and Other Extensions," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer;The Industrial Organization Society, vol. 39(1), pages 19-38, August.
    7. Hausman, Jerry & Moresi, Serge & Rainey, Mark, 2011. "Unilateral effects of mergers with general linear demand," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 111(2), pages 119-121, May.
    8. Schwalbe, Ulrich & Zimmer, Daniel, 2009. "Law and Economics in European Merger Control," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199571819.
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    More about this item


    pricing pressure indices; vertically integrated firms; mergers; UPP; GUPPI; vGUPPI;

    JEL classification:

    • L41 - Industrial Organization - - Antitrust Issues and Policies - - - Monopolization; Horizontal Anticompetitive Practices
    • L42 - Industrial Organization - - Antitrust Issues and Policies - - - Vertical Restraints; Resale Price Maintenance; Quantity Discounts

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