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Access, adoption, and diffusion

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  • Kumar, Neha
  • Quisumbing, Agnes R.

Abstract

This paper assesses long-term impacts of vegetable and polyculture fish production technologies on a variety of measures of household and individual well-being in Bangladesh. In 1996–1997, households were surveyed in three sites where nongovernmental organizations and extension programs were disseminating agricultural technologies—about two to six years after the technologies were first introduced. The same households were reinterviewed in 2006–2007. Using nearest-neighbor matching to construct a statistical comparison group, we find that long-term impacts differ across agricultural technology interventions and across outcomes. Long-term impacts on household-level consumption expenditures and asset accumulation are, in general, insignificant in the improved vegetables sites, but are positive and significant in the individually operated fishponds sites. Interestingly, impacts on individual nutrient intake, nutrient adequacy, and nutritional status do not necessarily follow the pattern of household-level impacts. The improved vegetable program, despite insignificant or even negative impacts at the household level, seems to have resulted in increases in vitamin A consumption (and iron consumption for men), an increase in average weight-for-age Z-scores among children, and a reduction in the proportion of girls stunted and the proportion of boys underweight. Women in the improved vegetable program also experienced increases in body mass index. Impacts in the group-operated fishponds sites on nutrient intake are mostly negative, although we do find improvements in weight-for-age Z-scores and a decline in stunting and wasting among boys. Although one would expect significant improvements in nutritional status in the individually operated fishponds sites, impacts on nutritional status are mixed. Nutrient availability and the fraction of members consuming the recommended daily allowances have improved significantly for most nutrients considered, among men and women. Although indicators of long-term nutritional status worsen, short-term nutritional status indicators improve. The fraction of women with low hemoglobin levels also decreases significantly. We argue that the differences in long-term and short-term impacts arise from several causes: differences in dissemination and targeting mechanisms that may affect what types of households adopt and benefit from the technologies; initial existing differences between control and treatment groups (controlled for using matching methods); the degree to which a technology is divisible and easily disseminated outside the treatment group; and finally, intrahousehold allocation processes that determine how gains from the new technology are allocated among household members.

Suggested Citation

  • Kumar, Neha & Quisumbing, Agnes R., 2010. "Access, adoption, and diffusion," IFPRI discussion papers 995, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  • Handle: RePEc:fpr:ifprid:995
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    7. Agnes R. Quisumbing & John A. Maluccio, 2003. "Resources at Marriage and Intrahousehold Allocation: Evidence from Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Indonesia, and South Africa," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 65(3), pages 283-327, July.
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    9. John A. Maluccio & John Hoddinott & Jere R. Behrman & Reynaldo Martorell & Agnes R. Quisumbing & Aryeh D. Stein, 2009. "The Impact of Improving Nutrition During Early Childhood on Education among Guatemalan Adults," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 119(537), pages 734-763, April.
    10. Daniel O. Gilligan & John Hoddinott, 2007. "Is There Persistence in the Impact of Emergency Food Aid? Evidence on Consumption, Food Security, and Assets in Rural Ethiopia," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 89(2), pages 225-242.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Agnes Quisumbing & Neha Kumar, 2011. "Does social capital build women's assets? The long-term impacts of group-based and individual dissemination of agricultural technology in Bangladesh," Journal of Development Effectiveness, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 3(2), pages 220-242.
    2. Quisumbing, Agnes R. & Rubin, Deborah & Manfre, Cristina & Waithanji, Elizabeth & van den Bold, Mara & Olney, Deanna K. & Meinzen-Dick, Ruth Suseela, 2014. "Closing the gender asset gap: Learning from value chain development in Africa and Asia:," IFPRI discussion papers 1321, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    3. Kasirye, Ibrahim, 2013. "Constraints to Agricultural Technology Adoption in Uganda: Evidence from the 2005/06-2009/10 Uganda National Panel Survey," African Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, African Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 8(2), August.
    4. Agnes Quisumbing & Bob Baulch & Neha Kumar, 2011. "Evaluating the long-term impact of anti-poverty interventions in Bangladesh: an overview," Journal of Development Effectiveness, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 3(2), pages 153-174.
    5. van den Bold, Mara & Quisumbing, Agnes R. & Gillespie, Stuart, 2013. "Women’s empowerment and nutrition: An evidence review:," IFPRI discussion papers 1294, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    6. Weeratunge, N. & Chiuta, T.M. & Choudhury, A. & Ferrer, A. & Hüsken, S.M.C. & Kura, Y. & Kusakabe, K. & Madzudzo, E. & Maetala, R. & Naved, R. & Schwarz, A. & Kantor, P., 2012. "Transforming aquatic agricultural systems towards gender equality: a five country review," Working Papers, The WorldFish Center, number 39966, June.
    7. Schmidt, Emily & Tadesse, Fanaye, 2012. "Household and plot level impact of Sustainable Land and Watershed Management (SLWM) practices in the Blue Nile:," ESSP working papers 42, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    8. Peter Davis & Bob Baulch, 2010. "Casting the net wide and deep: lessons learned in a mixed-methods study of poverty dynamics in rural Bangladesh," Working Papers id:2674, eSocialSciences.
    9. Mara van den Bold & Andrew Dillon & Deanna Olney & Marcellin Ouedraogo & Abdoulaye Pedehombga & Agnes Quisumbing, 2015. "Can Integrated Agriculture-Nutrition Programmes Change Gender Norms on Land and Asset Ownership? Evidence from Burkina Faso," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 51(9), pages 1155-1174, September.

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    Keywords

    agricultural technology adoption; long-term impacts; Nutrition;

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