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Why women are progressive in education?: Gender disparities in human capital, labor markets, and family arrangement in the Philippines

Author

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  • Yamauchi, Futoshi
  • Tiongco, Marites

Abstract

This paper shows mutually consistent evidence to support female advantage in education and disadvantage in labor markets observed in the Philippines. We set up a model that shows multiple Nash equilibria to explain schooling and labor market behaviors for females and males. Our evidence from unique sibling data of schooling and work history and from the Philippine Labor Force Survey support that family arrangement to tighten commitment between daughters and parents keeps a high level of schooling investments in daughters. Because wage penalty to females in labor markets means that education is relatively important as a determinant of their earnings, parental investments in their daughters’ education has larger impacts on the income of their daughters than on their sons. Parents expect larger income shared from better-educated adult daughters. In contrast, males stay in an equilibrium, with low levels of schooling investment and income sharing.

Suggested Citation

  • Yamauchi, Futoshi & Tiongco, Marites, 2012. "Why women are progressive in education?: Gender disparities in human capital, labor markets, and family arrangement in the Philippines," IFPRI discussion papers 1155, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  • Handle: RePEc:fpr:ifprid:1155
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Jonna P. Estudillo & JAgnes R. Quisumbing & JoKeijiro Otsuka, 2001. "Gender Differences in Land Inheritance and Schooling Investments in the Rural Philippines," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 77(1), pages 130-143.
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    Cited by:

    1. Yuan, Cheng & Zhang, Lei, 2015. "Public education spending and private substitution in urban China," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 115(C), pages 124-139.
    2. Okabe, Masayoshi, 2016. "Gender-preferential intergenerational patterns in primary educational attainment: An econometric approach to a case in rural Mindanao, the Philippines," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 125-142.
    3. World Bank, 2016. "Alternative and Inclusive Learning in the Philippines," World Bank Other Operational Studies 24713, The World Bank.
    4. Lamichhane, Kamal & Watanabe, Takayuki, 2015. "The Effect of Disability and Gender on Returns to the Investment in Education: A Case from Metro Manilla of the Philippines," Working Papers 103, JICA Research Institute.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Gender; Education; Labor market; Family.;

    JEL classification:

    • I21 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Analysis of Education
    • I25 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Education and Economic Development
    • J31 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials
    • J71 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor Discrimination - - - Hiring and Firing

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