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Terms-of-Trade and Counterterrorism Externalities

Author

Listed:
  • Bandyopadhyay, Subhayu

    () (Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis)

  • Sandler, Todd

    (University of Texas at Dallas)

  • Younas, Javed

    (American University of Sharjah)

Abstract

This paper investigates the interplay of trade and terrorism externalities under free trade between a developed nation that exports a manufactured good to and imports a primary product from a developing nation. A terrorist organization targets both nations and reduces its attacks in response to a nation’s defensive counterterrorism efforts, while transferring some of its attacks abroad. Terms-of-trade considerations lead the developed nation to raise its counterterrorism level beyond the “small-country” level, thus compounding its over provision of these measures. By contrast, the developing nation limits its defensive countermeasures below that of the small-country level. The analysis is extended to include proactive countermeasures to weaken the terrorist group. Again, the developed country raises its efforts owing to the terms-of-trade externality, which now opposes the under provision associated with proactive efforts. A second extension allows for several developing country exporters of the primary product.

Suggested Citation

  • Bandyopadhyay, Subhayu & Sandler, Todd & Younas, Javed, 2017. "Terms-of-Trade and Counterterrorism Externalities," Working Papers 2017-17, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
  • Handle: RePEc:fip:fedlwp:2017-017
    DOI: 10.20955/wp.2017.017
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    File URL: https://doi.org/10.20955/wp.2017.017
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Bandyopadhyay, Subhayu & Sandler, Todd & Younas, Javed, 2016. "Trade and Terrorism: A Disaggregated Approach," Working Papers 2016-1, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, revised 30 Jan 2017.
    2. Cárceles-Poveda, Eva & Tauman, Yair, 2011. "A strategic analysis of the war against transnational terrorism," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 71(1), pages 49-65, January.
    3. Daniel Mirza & Thierry Verdier, 2014. "Are Lives a Substitute for Livelihoods? Terrorism, Security, and US Bilateral Imports," Journal of Conflict Resolution, Peace Science Society (International), vol. 58(6), pages 943-975, September.
    4. Peter Egger & Martin Gassebner, 2015. "International terrorism as a trade impediment?," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 67(1), pages 42-62.
    5. Subhayu Bandyopadhyay & Todd Sandler, 2011. "The Interplay Between Preemptive and Defensive Counterterrorism Measures: A Two‐stage Game," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 78(311), pages 546-564, July.
    6. Nitsch, Volker & Schumacher, Dieter, 2004. "Terrorism and international trade: an empirical investigation," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 423-433, June.
    7. S. Brock Blomberg & Gregory D. Hess, 2006. "How Much Does Violence Tax Trade?," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 88(4), pages 599-612, November.
    8. Bandyopadhyay, Subhayu & Sandler, Todd, 2014. "Immigration policy and counterterrorism," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 110(C), pages 112-123.
    9. Kevin Siqueira & Todd Sandler, 2010. "Terrorist networks, support, and delegation," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 142(1), pages 237-253, January.
    10. Todd Sandler & Kevin Siqueira, 2006. "Global terrorism: deterrence versus pre-emption," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 39(4), pages 1370-1387, November.
    11. Sandler, Todd & Lapan, Harvey E., 1988. "The Calculus of Dissent: An Analysis of Terrorists' Choice of Targets," Staff General Research Papers Archive 10818, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Terms-of-trade externalities; transference externalities; terrorism; defensive counterterrorism; proactive counterterrorism;

    JEL classification:

    • D62 - Microeconomics - - Welfare Economics - - - Externalities
    • H41 - Public Economics - - Publicly Provided Goods - - - Public Goods
    • H56 - Public Economics - - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies - - - National Security and War

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