How much would banks be willing to pay to become "too-big-to-fail" and to capture other benefits?
This paper examines an important aspect of the “too-big-to-fail” (TBTF) policy employed by regulatory agencies in the United States. How much is it worth to become TBTF? How much has the TBTF status added to bank shareholders’ wealth? Using market and accounting data during the merger boom (1991-2004) when larger banks greatly expanded their size through mergers and acquisitions, we find that banking organizations are willing to pay an added premium for mergers that will put them over the asset sizes that are commonly viewed as the thresholds for being TBTF. We estimate at least $14 billion in added premiums for the nine merger deals that brought the organizations over $100 billion in total assets. These added premiums may reflect that perceived benefits of being TBTF and/or other potential benefits associated with size.
|Date of creation:||2007|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: 1 Memorial Drive, Kansas City, MO 64198-0001|
Phone: (816) 881-2254
Web page: http://www.kansascityfed.org/
More information through EDIRC
|Order Information:|| Email: |
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Brickley, James A. & James, Christopher M., 1986. "Access to deposit insurance, insolvency rules and the stock returns of financial institutions," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(3), pages 345-371, July.
- Donald P. Morgan & Kevin J. Stiroh, 2005. "Too big to fail after all these years," Staff Reports 220, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
- Ingo Walter & Markus M. Schmid, 2006.
"Do Financial Conglomerates Create or Destroy Economic Value?,"
06-28, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business, Department of Economics.
- Schmid, Markus M. & Walter, Ingo, 2009. "Do financial conglomerates create or destroy economic value?," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 193-216, April.
- White, Halbert, 1980. "A Heteroskedasticity-Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimator and a Direct Test for Heteroskedasticity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(4), pages 817-38, May.
- Kane, Edward J, 2000.
"Incentives for Banking Megamergers: What Motives Might Regulators Infer from Event-Study Evidence?,"
Journal of Money, Credit and Banking,
Blackwell Publishing, vol. 32(3), pages 671-701, August.
- Edward J. Kane, 2000. "Incentives for banking megamergers: what motives might regulators infer from event-study evidence?," Proceedings, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, pages 671-705.
- Edward J. Kane, 2000. "Incentives for banking megamergers: what motives might regulations infer from event-study evidence?," Proceedings 675, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
- Lazarus Angbazo & Anthony Saunders, . "The Effect of TBTF Deregulation on Bank Cost of Funds," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 97-25, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
- Kenneth A. Carow & Edward J. Kane & Rajesh P. Narayanan, 2005.
"How have borrowers fared in banking mega-mergers?,"
Working Paper Series
2005-09, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.
- Benston, George J & Hunter, William C & Wall, Larry D, 1995. "Motivations for Bank Mergers and Acquisitions: Enhancing the Deposit Insurance Put Option versus Earnings Diversification," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 27(3), pages 777-88, August.
- Huberto M. Ennis & H. S. Malek, 2005. "Bank risk of failure and the too-big-to-fail policy," Economic Quarterly, Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond, issue Spr, pages 21-44.
- Houston, Joel F. & James, Christopher M. & Ryngaert, Michael D., 2001. "Where do merger gains come from? Bank mergers from the perspective of insiders and outsiders," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 60(2-3), pages 285-331, May.
- Thomas M. Hoenig, 1999. "Financial industry megamergers and policy challenges," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, issue Q III, pages 7-13.
- Penas, Maria Fabiana & Unal, Haluk, 2004. "Gains in bank mergers: Evidence from the bond markets," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 74(1), pages 149-179, October.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:fip:fedkrw:rwp07-05. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Lu Dayrit)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.