IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/fip/fedgfe/2018-47.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Half-full or Half-empty? Financial Institutions, CDS Use, and Corporate Credit Risk

Author

Listed:
  • Cecilia Caglio
  • R. Matthew Darst
  • Eric Parolin

Abstract

We construct a novel U.S. data set that matches bank holding company credit default swap (CDS) positions to detailed U.S. credit registry data containing both loan and corporate bond holdings to study the effects of banks' CDS use on corporate credit quality. Banks may use CDS to mitigate agency frictions and not renegotiate loans with solvent but illiquid borrowers resulting in poorer measures of credit risk. Alternatively, banks may lay off the credit risk of high quality borrowers through the CDS market to comply with risk-based capital requirements, which does not impact corporate credit risk. We find new evidence that corporate default probabilities and downgrade likelihoods, if anything, are slightly lower when banks purchase CDS against their borrowers. The results are consistent with banks using CDS to efficiently lay off credit risk rather than inefficiently liquidate firms.

Suggested Citation

  • Cecilia Caglio & R. Matthew Darst & Eric Parolin, 2018. "Half-full or Half-empty? Financial Institutions, CDS Use, and Corporate Credit Risk," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2018-047, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  • Handle: RePEc:fip:fedgfe:2018-47
    DOI: 10.17016/FEDS.2018.047
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://www.federalreserve.gov/econres/feds/files/2018047pap.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. MacKie-Mason, Jeffrey K, 1990. "Do Taxes Affect Corporate Financing Decisions?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 45(5), pages 1471-1493, December.
    2. Patrick Bolton & Xavier Freixas & Leonardo Gambacorta & Paolo Emilio Mistrulli, 2016. "Relationship and Transaction Lending in a Crisis," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 29(10), pages 2643-2676.
    3. Lummer, Scott L. & McConnell, John J., 1989. "Further evidence on the bank lending process and the capital-market response to bank loan agreements," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(1), pages 99-122, November.
    4. Heitor Almeida & Murillo Campello, 2007. "Financial Constraints, Asset Tangibility, and Corporate Investment," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 20(5), pages 1429-1460, 2007 12.
    5. Henry T. C. Hu & Bernard Black, 2008. "Debt, Equity and Hybrid Decoupling: Governance and Systemic Risk Implications," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 14(4), pages 663-709, September.
    6. Parlour, Christine A. & Winton, Andrew, 2013. "Laying off credit risk: Loan sales versus credit default swaps," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 107(1), pages 25-45.
    7. Hirtle, Beverly, 2009. "Credit derivatives and bank credit supply," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 125-150, April.
    8. Cheol Park, 2000. "Monitoring and Structure of Debt Contracts," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 55(5), pages 2157-2195, October.
    9. Stulz, Rene, 2010. "Credit default Swaps and the Credit Crisis," Economic Policy, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, vol. 6, pages 157-175.
    10. Amiram, Dan & Beaver, William H. & Landsman, Wayne R. & Zhao, Jianxin, 2017. "The effects of credit default swap trading on information asymmetry in syndicated loans," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 126(2), pages 364-382.
    11. R. Matthew Darst & Ehraz Refayet, 2018. "Credit Default Swaps in General Equilibrium: Endogenous Default and Credit‐Spread Spillovers," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 50(8), pages 1901-1933, December.
    12. Douglas W. Diamond, 1984. "Financial Intermediation and Delegated Monitoring," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 51(3), pages 393-414.
    13. Subrahmanyam, Marti G. & Tang, Dragon Yongjun & Wang, Sarah Qian, 2017. "Credit default swaps, exacting creditors and corporate liquidity management," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 124(2), pages 395-414.
    14. Patrick Bolton & Xavier Freixas, 2000. "Equity, Bonds, and Bank Debt: Capital Structure and Financial Market Equilibrium under Asymmetric Information," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 108(2), pages 324-351, April.
    15. Bernadette Minton & René Stulz & Rohan Williamson, 2009. "How Much Do Banks Use Credit Derivatives to Hedge Loans?," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 35(1), pages 1-31, February.
    16. R. Matthew Darst & Ehraz Refayet, 2017. "A Model of Endogenous Debt Maturity with Heterogeneous Beliefs," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2017-057, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    17. Diamond, Douglas W, 1991. "Monitoring and Reputation: The Choice between Bank Loans and Directly Placed Debt," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 99(4), pages 689-721, August.
    18. Daniel Streitz, 2015. "The Impact of Credit Default Swap Trading on Loan Syndication," SFB 649 Discussion Papers SFB649DP2015-012, Sonderforschungsbereich 649, Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany.
    19. Adriano A. Rampini & S. Viswanathan & Guillaume Vuillemey, 2020. "Risk Management in Financial Institutions," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 75(2), pages 591-637, April.
    20. Mascia Bedendo & Lara Cathcart & Lina El‐Jahel, 2016. "Distressed Debt Restructuring in the Presence of Credit Default Swaps," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 48(1), pages 165-201, February.
    21. Li, Jay Yin & Tang, Dragon Yongjun, 2016. "The leverage externalities of credit default swaps," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 120(3), pages 491-513.
    22. Marti G. Subrahmanyam & Dragon Yongjun Tang & Sarah Qian Wang, 2014. "Does the Tail Wag the Dog?: The Effect of Credit Default Swaps on Credit Risk," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 27(10), pages 2927-2960.
    23. Patrick Bolton & Martin Oehmke, 2011. "Credit Default Swaps and the Empty Creditor Problem," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 24(8), pages 2617-2655.
    24. Gündüz, Yalin & Ongena, Steven & Tümer-Alkan, Günseli & Yu, Yuejuan, 2017. "CDS and credit: Testing the small bang theory of the financial universe with micro data," Discussion Papers 16/2017, Deutsche Bundesbank.
    25. Bolton, Patrick & Scharfstein, David S, 1996. "Optimal Debt Structure and the Number of Creditors," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 104(1), pages 1-25, February.
    26. Ashcraft, Adam B. & Santos, João A.C., 2009. "Has the CDS market lowered the cost of corporate debt?," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(4), pages 514-523, May.
    27. Colonnello, Stefano & Efing, Matthias & Zucchi, Francesca, 2019. "Shareholder bargaining power and the emergence of empty creditors," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 134(2), pages 297-317.
    28. Augustin, Patrick & Subrahmanyam, Marti G. & Tang, Dragon Yongjun & Wang, Sarah Qian, 2014. "Credit Default Swaps: A Survey," Foundations and Trends(R) in Finance, now publishers, vol. 9(1-2), pages 1-196, December.
    29. Larry E. Jones & Rodolfo E. Manuelli, 2001. "Endogenous Policy Choice: The Case of Pollution and Growth," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 4(2), pages 369-405, July.
    30. Gilson, Stuart C. & John, Kose & Lang, Larry H. P., 1990. "Troubled debt restructurings*1: An empirical study of private reorganization of firms in default," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 315-353, October.
    31. Sreedhar T. Bharath & Tyler Shumway, 2008. "Forecasting Default with the Merton Distance to Default Model," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 21(3), pages 1339-1369, May.
    32. Alessio Saretto & Heather E. Tookes, 2013. "Corporate Leverage, Debt Maturity, and Credit Supply: The Role of Credit Default Swaps," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 26(5), pages 1190-1247.
    33. Cecilia Caglio & R. Matthew Darst & Eric Parolin, 2016. "A Look Under the Hood How Banks Use Credit Default Swaps," FEDS Notes 2016-12-22-1, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. R. Matthew Darst & Ehraz Refayet, 2018. "Credit Default Swaps in General Equilibrium: Endogenous Default and Credit‐Spread Spillovers," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 50(8), pages 1901-1933, December.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Colonnello, Stefano, 2017. "Internal governance and creditor governance: Evidence from credit default swaps," IWH Discussion Papers 6/2017, Halle Institute for Economic Research (IWH).
    2. Jie Chen & Woon Sau Leung & Wei Song & Davide Avino, 2018. "Does CDS trading affect risk-taking incentives in managerial compensation?," Working Papers 2018-19, Swansea University, School of Management.
    3. Campello, Murillo & Matta, Rafael, 2020. "Investment risk, CDS insurance, and firm financing," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 125(C).
    4. Augustin, Patrick & Subrahmanyam, Marti G. & Tang, Dragon Yongjun & Wang, Sarah Qian, 2014. "Credit Default Swaps: A Survey," Foundations and Trends(R) in Finance, now publishers, vol. 9(1-2), pages 1-196, December.
    5. Colonnello, Stefano & Efing, Matthias & Zucchi, Francesca, 2019. "Shareholder bargaining power and the emergence of empty creditors," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 134(2), pages 297-317.
    6. Kim, Gi H., 2016. "Credit derivatives as a commitment device: Evidence from the cost of corporate debt," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 73(C), pages 67-83.
    7. Shan, Chenyu & Tang, Dragon Yongjun & Winton, Andrew, 2019. "Do banks still monitor when there is a market for credit protection?," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(2).
    8. A. Hong, Hyun & Lobo, Gerald J. & Ryou, Ji Woo, 2019. "Financial market development and firm investment in tax avoidance: Evidence from credit default swap market," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 107(C), pages 1-1.
    9. Mascia Bedendo & Lara Cathcart & Lina El‐Jahel, 2016. "Distressed Debt Restructuring in the Presence of Credit Default Swaps," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 48(1), pages 165-201, February.
    10. Oehmke, Martin & Zawadowski, Adam, 2015. "Synthetic or real? The equilibrium effects of credit default swaps on bond markets," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 84511, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    11. Arping, Stefan, 2014. "Credit protection and lending relationships," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 10(C), pages 7-19.
    12. Beyhaghi, Mehdi & Massoud, Nadia & Saunders, Anthony, 2017. "Why and how do banks lay off credit risk? The choice between retention, loan sales and credit default swaps," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 335-355.
    13. Aldasoro, Iñaki & Barth, Andreas, 2017. "Syndicated loans and CDS positioning," ESRB Working Paper Series 58, European Systemic Risk Board.
    14. Jae B. Kim & Pervin Shroff & Dushyantkumar Vyas & Regina Wittenberg‐Moerman, 2018. "Credit Default Swaps and Managers’ Voluntary Disclosure," Journal of Accounting Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 56(3), pages 953-988, June.
    15. Rajesh Narayanan & Cihan Uzmanoglu, 2018. "Credit Insurance, Distress Resolution Costs, and Bond Spreads," Financial Management, Financial Management Association International, vol. 47(4), pages 931-951, December.
    16. Stefano Colonnello & Matthias Efing & Francesca Zucchi, 2016. "Empty Creditors and Strong Shareholders: The Real Effects of Credit Risk Trading," Swiss Finance Institute Research Paper Series 16-17, Swiss Finance Institute, revised Jun 2016.
    17. Fuller, Kathleen P. & Yildiz, Serhat & Uymaz, Yurtsev, 2018. "Credit default swaps and firms' financing policies," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 34-48.
    18. Daniel Streitz, 2015. "The Impact of Credit Default Swap Trading on Loan Syndication," SFB 649 Discussion Papers SFB649DP2015-012, Sonderforschungsbereich 649, Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany.
    19. Subrahmanyam, Marti G. & Tang, Dragon Yongjun & Wang, Sarah Qian, 2017. "Credit default swaps, exacting creditors and corporate liquidity management," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 124(2), pages 395-414.
    20. Ivanov, Ivan T. & Santos, João A.C. & Vo, Thu, 2016. "The transformation of banking: Tying loan interest rates to borrowers' CDS spreads," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 150-165.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Bank lending; Credit default swaps; Risk management;

    JEL classification:

    • G2 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services
    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
    • G23 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Non-bank Financial Institutions; Financial Instruments; Institutional Investors

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:fip:fedgfe:2018-47. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/frbgvus.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.