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Analyzing Federal Reserve asset purchases: from whom does the Fed buy?

Author

Listed:
  • Seth B. Carpenter
  • Selva Demiralp
  • Jane E. Ihrig
  • Elizabeth C. Klee

Abstract

Asset purchases have become an important monetary policy tool of the Federal Reserve in recent years. To date, most studies of the Federal Reserve's asset purchases have tried to measure the interest rate effects of the policies. Several papers provide evidence that these programs do have important effects on longer-term market interest rates. The theory of how asset purchases work, however, is less well developed. Some of the empirical studies point to "preferred habitat" models in which investors do not have the same objectives, and therefore prefer to hold different types and maturities of securities. We exploit Flow of Funds data to assess the types of investors that are selling to the Federal Reserve and their portfolio adjustment after these sales, which could provide a view to the plausibility of preferred habitat models and the transmission of unconventional monetary policy across asset markets. We find that the Federal Reserve is ultimately buying from only a handful of investor types, primarily households, with a different reaction to changes in Federal Reserve holdings of longer-term versus shorter-term assets. Although not evident for all investors, the key participants are shown to rebalance their portfolios toward more risky assets during this period. These results can be interpreted as supporting, at least in part, the preferred habit theory and the view that the monetary policy transmission is working across asset markets.

Suggested Citation

  • Seth B. Carpenter & Selva Demiralp & Jane E. Ihrig & Elizabeth C. Klee, 2013. "Analyzing Federal Reserve asset purchases: from whom does the Fed buy?," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2013-32, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  • Handle: RePEc:fip:fedgfe:2013-32
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Vayanos, Dimitri & Vila, Jean-Luc, 2009. "A preferred-habitat model of the term structure of interest rates," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 29308, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    2. Joseph Gagnon & Matthew Raskin & Julie Remache & Brian Sack, 2011. "The Financial Market Effects of the Federal Reserve's Large-Scale Asset Purchases," International Journal of Central Banking, International Journal of Central Banking, vol. 7(1), pages 3-43, March.
    3. repec:ijc:ijcjou:y:2018:q:1:a:8 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Arvind Krishnamurthy & Annette Vissing-Jorgensen, 2011. "The Effects of Quantitative Easing on Interest Rates: Channels and Implications for Policy," NBER Working Papers 17555, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    5. D’Amico, Stefania & King, Thomas B., 2013. "Flow and stock effects of large-scale treasury purchases: Evidence on the importance of local supply," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 108(2), pages 425-448.
    6. Jane Ihrig & Elizabeth Klee & Canlin Li & Min Wei & Joe Kachovec, 2018. "Expectations about the Federal Reserve’s Balance Sheet and the Term Structure of Interest Rates," International Journal of Central Banking, International Journal of Central Banking, vol. 14(2), pages 341-391, March.
    7. George Kapetanios & Haroon Mumtaz & Ibrahim Stevens & Konstantinos Theodoridis, 2012. "Assessing the Economy‐wide Effects of Quantitative Easing," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 122(564), pages 316-347, November.
    8. Arvind Krishnamurthy & Annette Vissing-Jorgensen, 2011. "The Effects of Quantitative Easing on Interest Rates: Channels and Implications for Policy," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 43(2 (Fall)), pages 215-287.
    9. Han Chen & Vasco Cúrdia & Andrea Ferrero, 2012. "The Macroeconomic Effects of Large‐scale Asset Purchase Programmes," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 122(564), pages 289-315, November.
    10. Valery Polkovnichenko, 2005. "Household Portfolio Diversification: A Case for Rank-Dependent Preferences," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 18(4), pages 1467-1502.
    11. Jonathan H. Wright, 2012. "What does Monetary Policy do to Long‐term Interest Rates at the Zero Lower Bound?," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 122(564), pages 447-466, November.
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    Cited by:

    1. R. S.J. Koijen & F. Koulischer & B. Nguyen & M. Yogo, 2016. "Quantitative Easing in the Euro Area: The Dynamics of Risk Exposures and the Impact on Asset Prices," Working papers 601, Banque de France.
    2. Arito Ono & Kosuke Aoki & Shinichi Nishioka & Kohei Shintani & Yosuke Yasui, 2016. "Long-term interest rates and bank loan supply: Evidence from firm-bank loan-level data," Bank of Japan Working Paper Series 16-E-2, Bank of Japan.
    3. Eksi, Ozan & Tas, Bedri Kamil Onur, 2017. "Unconventional monetary policy and the stock market’s reaction to Federal Reserve policy actions," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 136-147.
    4. Christensen, Jens H. E. & Krogstrup, Signe, 2016. "A Portfolio Model of Quantitative Easing," Working Paper Series 2016-12, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, revised 23 Aug 2017.
    5. Kandrac, John & Schlusche, Bernd, 2017. "Quantitative Easing and Bank Risk Taking: Evidence from Lending," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2017-125, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    6. Dunne, Peter & Everett, Mary & Stuart, Rebecca, 2015. "The Expanded Asset Purchase Programme – What, Why and How of Euro Area QE," Quarterly Bulletin Articles, Central Bank of Ireland, pages 61-71, July.
    7. Bua, Giovanna & Dunne, Peter G., 2017. "The Portfolio Rebalancing Effects of the ECB's Asset Purchase Programme," Research Technical Papers 07/RT/17, Central Bank of Ireland.
    8. Martijn Boermans & Viacheslav Keshkov, 2018. "The impact of the ECB asset purchases on the European bond market structure: Granular evidence on ownership concentration," DNB Working Papers 590, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.
    9. W. Arrata & B. Nguyen & I. Rahmouni-Rousseau & M. Vari, 2017. "Eurosystem’s asset purchases and money market rates," Working papers 652, Banque de France.
    10. Arito Ono, Kosuke Aoki & hinichi Nishioka & Kohei Shintani & Yosuke Yasui, 2018. "Long-term interest rates and bank loan supply: Evidence from firm-bank loan-level data," Working Papers e119, Tokyo Center for Economic Research.
    11. Lojschova, Adriana, 2017. "Did quantitative easing boost bank lending? The Slovak experience," MPRA Paper 79567, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    12. Masashi Saito & Yoshihiko Hogen, 2014. "Portfolio Rebalancing Following the Bank of Japan's Government Bond Purchases: Empirical Analysis Using Data on Bank Loans and Investment Flows," Bank of Japan Research Papers 14-06-19, Bank of Japan.
    13. Lucian Liviu ALBU & Radu LUPU & Adrian Cantemir CĂLIN, 2016. "Quantitative Easing, Tapering And Stock Market Indices," ECONOMIC COMPUTATION AND ECONOMIC CYBERNETICS STUDIES AND RESEARCH, Faculty of Economic Cybernetics, Statistics and Informatics, vol. 50(3), pages 5-23.
    14. Jane E. Ihrig & Lawrence Mize & Gretchen C. Weinbach, 2017. "How Does the Fed Adjust its Securities Holdings and Who is Affected?," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2017-099, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    15. Kandrac, John & Schlusche, Bernd, 2015. "An agency problem in the MBS market and the solicited refinancing channel of large-scale asset purchases," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2015-27, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    16. Adriana Lojschova, 2017. "Did quantitative easing boost bank lending? The Slovak experience," Working and Discussion Papers WP 1/2017, Research Department, National Bank of Slovakia.
    17. Martijn Boermans & Robert Vermeulen, 2018. "Quantitative easing and preferred habitat investors in the euro area bond market," DNB Working Papers 586, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.
    18. repec:eco:journ2:2018-03-17 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • E52 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Monetary Policy
    • E58 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Central Banks and Their Policies

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