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Bank core deposits and the mitigation of monetary policy

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  • Lamont K. Black
  • Diana Hancock
  • Wayne Passmore

Abstract

We consider the business strategy of some banks that provide relationship loans (where they have loan origination and monitoring advantages relative to capital markets) with core deposit funding (where they can pass along the benefit of a sticky price on deposits). These "traditional banks" tend to lend out less than the deposits they take in, so they have a "buffer stock" of core deposits. This buffer stock of core deposits can be used to mitigate the full effect of tighter monetary policy on their bank-dependent borrowers. In this manner, the business strategy of "traditional banks" acts as a "core deposit mitigation channel" to provide funds to bank-dependent borrowers when there are monetary shocks. In effect, there is no bank lending channel of monetary policy associated with these traditional banks. ; In contrast, other banks mainly rely on managed liabilities that are priced at market rates. These banks do not have to shift from insured deposits to managed liabilities in response to tighter monetary policy. At the margin, their loans are already funded with managed liabilities. For these banks as well, there is no unique bank lending channel of monetary policy. ; The only banks that are likely to raise loan rates substantially in response to an increase in the federal funds rate are banks with a high proportion of relationship loans that are close to a loan-to-core deposit ratio of one. These banks must substitute higher cost nondeposit liabilities, which have an external finance premium, for core deposits, which do not because of deposit insurance. Some of these banks may also face higher marginal costs as their loan-to-core deposit ratio approaches one because of the costs associated with lending to default-prone relationship borrowers. It is among these banks (which we refer to as high relationship lenders), and only these banks, that we find evidence of a bank lending channel - they significantly reduce lending in response to a monetary contraction. Importantly, these banks hold only a small fraction of U.S. banking assets. Thus, in the United States, the bank lending channel seems limited in scope and importance, mainly because so few banks that specialize in relationship lending switch from core deposits to managed liabilities in response to changes in interest rates.

Suggested Citation

  • Lamont K. Black & Diana Hancock & Wayne Passmore, 2007. "Bank core deposits and the mitigation of monetary policy," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2007-65, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  • Handle: RePEc:fip:fedgfe:2007-65
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Hanson, Samuel G. & Shleifer, Andrei & Stein, Jeremy C. & Vishny, Robert W., 2015. "Banks as patient fixed-income investors," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 117(3), pages 449-469.
    2. Carpenter, Seth & Demiralp, Selva, 2012. "Money, reserves, and the transmission of monetary policy: Does the money multiplier exist?," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 34(1), pages 59-75.
    3. Li, Xiaofei & Escalante, Cesar L. & Epperson, James E. & Gunter, Lewell F., 2012. "Agricultural Banking and Early Warning Models for the Bank Failures of the Late 2000s Great Recession," 2012 Annual Meeting, February 4-7, 2012, Birmingham, Alabama 119656, Southern Agricultural Economics Association.
    4. repec:fgv:epgrbe:v:67:n:4:a:2 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Steven W. Sumner & Guy Yamashiro, 2011. "Bank liabilities and the monetary transmission mechanism," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 31(2), pages 1413-1431.
    6. Lamont K. Black & Richard J. Rosen, 2016. "Monetary Policy, Loan Maturity, and Credit Availability," International Journal of Central Banking, International Journal of Central Banking, vol. 12(1), pages 199-230, March.
    7. Entrop, O. & von la Hausse, L. & Wilkens, M., 2017. "Looking beyond banks’ average interest rate risk: Determinants of high exposures," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 204-218.
    8. Tabak, Benjamin Miranda, 2013. "Financial Stability and Monetary Policy - The case of Brazil," Revista Brasileira de Economia - RBE, FGV/EPGE - Escola Brasileira de Economia e Finanças, Getulio Vargas Foundation (Brazil), vol. 67(4), November.
    9. Krainer, Robert E., 2014. "Monetary policy and bank lending in the Euro area: Is there a stock market channel or an interest rate channel?," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 49(PB), pages 283-298.
    10. Masami Imai, 2008. "Crowding-Out Effects of a Government-Owned Depository Institution: Evidence from a Natural Experiment in Japan," Wesleyan Economics Working Papers 2008-003, Wesleyan University, Department of Economics.
    11. Seth Carpenter & Selva Demiralp, 2009. "Money and the Transmission of Monetary Policy," Koç University-TUSIAD Economic Research Forum Working Papers 0906, Koc University-TUSIAD Economic Research Forum.

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    Keywords

    Bank loans ; Banks and banking - United States;

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