A decomposition of the black-white differential in birth outcomes
Substantial racial disparities continue to persist in the prevalence of preterm births and low-birth-weight births. Health policy aimed at reducing these disparities could be better targeted if the differences in birth outcomes are better understood. This study decomposes these racial disparities in birth outcomes to determine the extent to which the disparities are driven by differences in measurable characteristics of black mothers and white mothers as well as the extent to which the gap results from differences in the impact of these characteristics. The analysis is focused on three adverse birth outcomes: preterm, early preterm birth (less than 32 weeks gestation), and low birth weight. The results suggest that differences in covariates accounted for approximately 25 percent of the gap in the incidence of preterm births. The specific characteristics that matter the most are marriage rates, father's characteristics, and prenatal care. For gestation-adjusted birth weight, approximately 16 percent of the racial gap for first births is explained by covariates; for subsequent births this covariate explanation rises to 22 percent of the gap. Furthermore, differences in coefficients explain about another quarter of the gap in preterm birth outcomes but very little of the gap in birth weight.
|Date of creation:||2011|
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- Partha Deb & Karen Smith Conway, 2002.
"Is Prenatal Care Really Ineffective? Or, is the 'Devil' in the Distribution?,"
Economics Working Paper Archive at Hunter College
02/2, Hunter College Department of Economics.
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- Yun, Myeong-Su, 2003.
"Decomposing Differences in the First Moment,"
IZA Discussion Papers
877, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Levinson, Arik & Ullman, Frank, 1998. "Medicaid managed care and infant health," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 351-368, June.
- Jason Abrevaya, 2006. "Estimating the effect of smoking on birth outcomes using a matched panel data approach," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 21(4), pages 489-519.
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