On The Economics of Forest Carbon: Renewable and Carbon Neutral But Not Emission Free
First-best optimal forest sector carbon policy is examined. Using a comprehensive forest sector model with a detailed carbon cycle section we show that the renewability and carbon neutrality arguments do not warrant emission free treatment of forest bioenergy. However, under the biomass stock change carbon accounting convention followed by UNFCCC and IPCC, the forest owners pay for the roundwood emissions and, to avoid double counting, the use of roundwood is treated as emission free. The bioenergy from harvest residues cannot be treated as emission free either. Their emission factors are determined through the decay time-scales specific to residue fractions and discount rate used in welfare assessment. In addition, we show that an optimal policy subsidizes the production of wood products sequestering carbon. The relative magnitude of the subsidy is based on the fraction of the carbon stored, the lifetime of the products and the discount rate. Correspondingly, the carbon removals by biomass growth are subsidized and the harvest residue generation taxed. Further, we show that the supply side policies are independent of final use of harvested timber. Numerical solution of the model shows that, although the use of wood is not emission free, it is optimal to increase the use of wood, possibly also in the energy sector. Before the wood use can be increased, the forest biomass has to be increased. This initial carbon sink speeds up the convergence to the lower steady-state atmospheric carbon stock.
|Date of creation:||Feb 2014|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Web page: http://www.feem.it/
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Adam J. Daigneault & Mario J. Miranda & Brent Sohngen, 2010. "Optimal Forest Management with Carbon Sequestration Credits and Endogenous Fire Risk," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 86(1), pages 155-172.
- Wan, Henry, Jr, 1994. "Revisiting the Mitra-Wan Tree Farm," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 35(1), pages 193-98, February.
- Even Bjørnstad & Anders Skonhoft, 2002. "Wood Fuel or Carbon Sink? Aspects of Forestry in the Climate Question," Environmental & Resource Economics, European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 23(4), pages 447-465, December.
- Salo, Seppo & Tahvonen, Olli, 2002. "On Equilibrium Cycles and Normal Forests in Optimal Harvesting of Tree Vintages," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 44(1), pages 1-22, July.
- Nordhaus, William D., 1993.
"Rolling the 'DICE': an optimal transition path for controlling greenhouse gases,"
Resource and Energy Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 15(1), pages 27-50, March.
- William D. Nordhaus, 1992. "Rolling the 'Dice': An Optimal Transition Path for Controlling Greenhouse Gases," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 1019, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
- Jussi Uusivuori & Jari Kuuluvainen, 2005. "The Harvesting Decisions When a Standing Forest with Multiple Age-Classes Has Value," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 87(1), pages 61-76.
- Searchinger, Timothy & Heimlich, Ralph & Houghton, R. A. & Dong, Fengxia & Elobeid, Amani & Fabiosa, Jacinto F. & Tokgoz, Simla & Hayes, Dermot J. & Yu, Hun-Hsiang, 2008. "Use of U.S. Croplands for Biofuels Increases Greenhouse Gases Through Emissions from Land-Use Change," Staff General Research Papers 12881, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
- Cunha-e-Sá, Maria A. & Rosa, Renato & Costa-Duarte, Clara, 2013. "Natural carbon capture and storage (NCCS): Forests, land use and carbon accounting," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 35(2), pages 148-170.
- Brent Sohngen & Robert Mendelsohn, 2003. "An Optimal Control Model of Forest Carbon Sequestration," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 85(2), pages 448-457.
- Seppo Salo & Olli Tahvonen, 2004. "Renewable Resources with Endogenous Age Classes and Allocation of Land," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 86(2), pages 513-530.
- Salo, Seppo & Tahvonen, Olli, 2003. "On the economics of forest vintages," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 27(8), pages 1411-1435, June.
- Mitra, Tapan & Wan, Henry Jr., 1986. "On the faustmann solution to the forest management problem," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 40(2), pages 229-249, December.
- Mitra, Tapan & Wan, Henry Y, Jr, 1985. "Some Theoretical Results on the Economics of Forestry," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 52(2), pages 263-82, April.
- Roger Sedjo & Joe Wisniewski & Alaric Sample & John Kinsman, 1995. "The economics of managing carbon via forestry: Assessment of existing studies," Environmental & Resource Economics, European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 6(2), pages 139-165, September.
- Bjart Holtsmark, 2012. "Harvesting in boreal forests and the biofuel carbon debt," Climatic Change, Springer, vol. 112(2), pages 415-428, May.
- Robert N. Stavins, 1999. "The Costs of Carbon Sequestration: A Revealed-Preference Approach," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 89(4), pages 994-1009, September.
- Marland, Gregg & Schlamadinger, Bernhard, 1995. "Biomass fuels and forest-management strategies: How do we calculate the greenhouse-gas emissions benefits?," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 20(11), pages 1131-1140.
- Tahvonen, Olli, 1995. "Net national emissions, CO2 taxation and the role of forestry," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(4), pages 307-315, December.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:fem:femwpa:2014.13. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (barbara racah)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.