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Impacts of International Migration and Remittances on Source Country Household Incomes in Small Island States; Fiji and Tonga

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Listed:
  • Richard P.C. Brown

    (Agricultural and Development Economics Division, Food and Agriculture Organization)

  • Gareth Leeves

    (Agricultural and Development Economics Division, Food and Agriculture Organization)

Abstract

We use original 2005 survey data from Fiji and Tonga on remittances and household income to estimate the combined impact of migration and remittances on the composition of household income. A two-stage methodology is followed. A variable for the predicted number of migrants in each household is generated to control for selectivity in migration. This variable is then used in a 3SLS remittances and income equation system. In neither country do we observe significant impacts on agricultural cash income, but, in relation to other income sources, including subsistence agriculture, wages and non-agricultural business activities, some significant and different effects are found, both positive and negative. These findings suggest that the duration and intensity of remittance-driven migration, and the structure of economic activity within a community are important in understanding the influences of migration and remittances on household resource allocation and production decisions and on the community’s economic transformation.

Suggested Citation

  • Richard P.C. Brown & Gareth Leeves, 2007. "Impacts of International Migration and Remittances on Source Country Household Incomes in Small Island States; Fiji and Tonga," Working Papers 07-13, Agricultural and Development Economics Division of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO - ESA).
  • Handle: RePEc:fao:wpaper:0713
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Bauer, Thomas K. & Epstein, Gil S. & Gang, Ira N., 2002. "Herd Effects or Migration Networks? The Location Choice of Mexican Immigrants in the U.S," IZA Discussion Papers 551, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    2. Taylor, J. Edward, 1992. "Remittances and inequality reconsidered: Direct, indirect, and intertemporal effects," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 14(2), pages 187-208, April.
    3. Richard P. C. Brown, 1998. "Comparative labor market performance of visaed and non-visaed migrants: Pacific islanders in Sydney," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 11(3), pages 395-411.
    4. Richard P.C. Brown & Eliana Jimenez, 2008. "Estimating the net effects of migration and remittances on poverty and inequality: comparison of Fiji and Tonga," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 20(4), pages 547-571.
    5. Hendrik Dalen & George Groenewold & Jeannette Schoorl, 2005. "Out of Africa: what drives the pressure to emigrate?," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 18(4), pages 741-778, November.
    6. Brown, Richard P. C., 1997. "Estimating remittance functions for Pacific Island Migrants," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 25(4), pages 613-626, January.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. John Gibson & David McKenzie & Steven Stillman, 2011. "The Impacts of International Migration on Remaining Household Members: Omnibus Results from a Migration Lottery Program," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 93(4), pages 1297-1318, November.
    2. Gharad Bryan & Shyamal Chowdhury & A. Mushfiq Mobarak, 2011. "Seasonal Migration and Risk Aversion," Working Papers id:4650, eSocialSciences.
    3. David McKenzie & John Gibson & Steven Stillman, 2007. "Moving to opportunity, leaving behind what? Evaluating the initial effects of a migration policy on incomes and poverty in source areas," New Zealand Economic Papers, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 41(2), pages 197-223.
    4. repec:bla:ecanth:v:4:y:2017:i:1:p:65-81 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Marco Stampini & Benjamin Davis, 2009. "Does nonagricultural labor relax farmers' credit constraints? Evidence from longitudinal data for Vietnam," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 40(2), pages 177-188, March.
    6. Ronald Ravinesh Kumar & Ronald Vijay Naidu & Radika Kumar, 2011. "Exploring the Nexus between Trade, Visitor Arrivals, Remittances and Income in the Pacific: a Study of Vanuatu," Acta Universitatis Danubius. OEconomica, Danubius University of Galati, issue 4(4), pages 199-218, August.
    7. Jadotte, Evans & Ramos, Xavier, 2015. "The Effect of Remittances on Labour Supply in the Republic of Haiti," IZA Discussion Papers 9541, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Migration; remittances; agricultural and non-agricultural income sources; Fiji; Tonga.;

    JEL classification:

    • O15 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration
    • O13 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Agriculture; Natural Resources; Environment; Other Primary Products

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