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Implementation of the Macroeconomic Adjustment Programmes in the Euro Area: State-of-Play


  • Gros, Daniel
  • Alcidi, Cinzia
  • Belke, Ansgar
  • Coutinho, Leonor
  • Giovannini, Alessandro


Two of the four macroeconomic adjustment programmes – in Portugal and Ireland – can be considered a success in the sense that the initial expectations in terms of adjustment, both fiscal and external, were broadly fulfilled. A rebound based on exports has taken hold in these two countries, but a full recovery will take years. In Greece the initial plans were insufficient. While the strong impact of the fiscal adjustment on demand could have been partially anticipated at the time, the resistance to structural reforms was more surprising and remains difficult to cure. The fiscal adjustment is now almost completed, but the external adjustment has not proceeded well. Exports are stagnating despite impressive falls in wage costs. In Cyprus, the outcome has so far been less severe than initially feared. It is still too early to find robust evidence in any country that the programmes have increased the long-term growth potential. Survey-based evidence suggests that structural reforms have not yet taken hold. The EU-led macroeconomic adjustment programmes outside the euro area (e.g. Latvia) seem to have been much stricter, but the adjustment was quicker and followed by a stronger rebound.

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  • Gros, Daniel & Alcidi, Cinzia & Belke, Ansgar & Coutinho, Leonor & Giovannini, Alessandro, 2014. "Implementation of the Macroeconomic Adjustment Programmes in the Euro Area: State-of-Play," CEPS Papers 9017, Centre for European Policy Studies.
  • Handle: RePEc:eps:cepswp:9017

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Jean Pisani-Ferry & André Sapir & Guntram B. Wolff, . "EU-IMF assistance to euro area countries: an early assessment," Blueprints, Bruegel, number 779, August.
    2. Mark A Horton & George C. Tsibouris & Wojciech Maliszewski & Mark J Flanagan, 2006. "Experience with Large Fiscal Adjustments," IMF Occasional Papers 246, International Monetary Fund.
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    Cited by:

    1. Elena Bobeica & Paulo Soares Esteves & António Rua & Karsten Staehr, 2016. "Exports and domestic demand pressure: a dynamic panel data model for the euro area countries," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 152(1), pages 107-125, February.
    2. Ansgar Belke & Daniel Gros, 2017. "Greece and the Troika – Lessons from International Best Practice Cases of Successful Price (and Wage) Adjustment," European Journal of Comparative Economics, Cattaneo University (LIUC), vol. 14(2), pages 177-195, December.
    3. Barslund, Mikkel, 2015. "Greece’s poor growth prospects," CEPS Papers 10856, Centre for European Policy Studies.
    4. repec:eee:ecmode:v:67:y:2017:i:c:p:338-345 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Cinzia Alcidi & Ansgar Belke & Alessandro Giovannini & Daniel Gros, 2016. "Macroeconomic adjustment programmes in the euro area: an overall assessment," International Economics and Economic Policy, Springer, vol. 13(3), pages 345-358, July.
    6. Theodoros S. Papaspyrou, 2015. "EMU 2.0 Drawing Lessons From the Crisis - a New Framework For Stability and Growth," Working Papers 192, Bank of Greece.
    7. Belke, Ansgar & Gros, Daniel, 2016. "Negative Rates and Seigniorage: Turning the central bank business model upside down? The special case of the ECB," CEPS Papers 11753, Centre for European Policy Studies.

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